[LITOPYS UPA: Chronicle of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army]

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"CHORNYI LIS", No. 1, JUNE 1947

This issue of the journal includes an introductory article, six accounts of UPA military encounters, four biographical sketches, two documents and two poems. Marko Boieslav is the author of the introductory article, the poems and one of the biographical sketches. The accounts of skirmishes and other biographies were written by UPA officers. The first document, "Decorations", lists 13 decorated UPA officers; the second, "Fallen on the field of glory", names 35 fallen UPA soldiers - 29 officers and six non-commissioned officers. All the persons named in the documents were active in the UPA's Stanyslaviv Military District(TV), which went under the code name, "Choryi lis"; (code number 22).

The journal begins with Marko Boieslav's poem, "Their order", and his patriotic article, "The legend of Chornyi forest".

Company commander "B.Podoliak" describes the battle that took place on April 29, 1944, in the village of Hrabivka, Perehins'kyi Raion, between the UPA company commanded by Vasyl' Andrusiak ("Hrehit", "Rizun") and a detachment of Col. Kulagin's Soviet partisans ("encounter with Soviet partisans in the village of Hrabivka"). On the day before the skirmish, 28 Soviet cavalrymen had descended on the village to requisition food supplies. A platoon of UPA soldiers caught them in a surprise attack: they drove away the enemy soldiers and captured their horses. On the morning, Kulagin's forces advanced on the platoon and the Soviet captured part of the village. V. Andrusiak brought the rest of his company to assist the platoon. The fight raged from sunrise until three o'clock in the afternoon. The Soviet finally retreated in panic but not before they had murdered 16 civilians, including the priests Mylytiuk and Skruten'. Soviet losses numbered between ten and twenty; four insurgents were killed including platoon leader "Moroz" and his assistant, "Lisovyi".

Capt. "Chornota", commander of the battalion "Dzvony", gives an account of his battalion's night attack, on December 21, 1945, on and MVD special force of over 300 men, in the Perhins'kyi Raion. ("Battalion "Dzvony's" attack on the Soviet in the Chornyi forest, near the village of Zaviy, Perehins'kyi Raion".) We are given a detailed description of enemy positions and of the plan of attack, then a brief account of the operation, which was carried out by the battalion's 1st and 2nd companies, under the command of Lt. "Yavir" and Lt. Mykhailo Korzhak ("Saper"). The insurgents attached one MVD unit in the forest; another, while it was on the march; and a third, in the village of Zaviy. In each case, the attack was successful: heavy losses were inflicted on the enemy and supplies of arms and equipment were captured. The remaining members of the battalion, who maintained outposts on the access road, destroyed two vehicles carrying MVD soldiers. The battalion suffered on losses.

Sgt. Maj. (Starshyi Bulavnyi) "Henyk" tells of the origins of Vasyl' Andresial's company, in July-September, 1943> ("From the memoirs of Sgt. Maj. "Henyk", as written down by political officer "Chaika"). At its inception in the Kolomyia and Sniatyn regions in July, 1943, the detachment consisted of eight persons. As the group made its way towards the Chornyi forest, it was joined by more volunteers. In order to obtain arms and military equipment, the insurgents launched attacks on German posts. The author provides a details account of all new volunteers, noting their pseudonyms and their places and dates of entry into the company. He also describes the company's encounters with Germans: attacks in the "Schutz" police in Horodenka Povit, on the town of Tys'menytsia and on the "Liegenschaft" in Markivtsi. He gives a brief description of the company's skirmish with Kovpak's partisans, of the entry into the UPA of the Soviet Major "Yurko", and of meetings with the UPA battalion "Chorni Chorty", which was under the command of "Hutsul" (Ivan Butkov'skyi).

Lt. "Pavlo", commander of "Zavediyi" company of the "Pidkarpatskyi" battalion commanded by "Prut", describes an ambush on the Soviet army carried out in March 11, 1945, between the villages of Didushytsi Mali and Diduchytse Velyki. ("A memoir of "Skazheni" battalion's raid into the Stryi region"). An MVD motor convoy drove into the ambush. Firing at close range, the company destroyed the convoy but it did not score a complete victory, because the survivors of the ambush were quickly joined by reinforcements. The author give a full description of the operation. Approximately 220 Soviet soldiers were killed; of the insurgents, one was killed and three wounded.

Lt. Mykhailo Korzhak ("Saper"), provides an account of the "Dzvony" battalion's battle in the Chornyi forest, between the villages of Krasne and Khmelivka, on January 23, 1946. ("Battle in the forest clearing "). The battle occurred during the MVD's great blockade of the UPA's zone of operations. MVD garrisons had been established in villages and in wooded areas. The insurgents were malnourished and exhausted by skirmishes and marches. While the battalion (consisting of companies commanded by M. Korzhak, "Yavir" and "Vovk" )was marching through an open section of the forest, MVD forces attacked, both from the ground and from the air. The fight lasted almost all day. When the situation became critical - the insurgents had almost exhausted their supply of ammunition and were totally surrounded by enemy forces - M. Korzhak, who was commanding the battalion in place of battalion commander "Chornota", gave each company a separate order to charge through. The battalion broke through the encirclement, but 15 insurgents were killed, among them platoon leader "Shuhai". Several of the seriously wounded insurgents who could not be evacuated shot themselves. 50 Soviet soldiers were killed.

Platoon leader "Chernyk" tells of the skirmish waged in the spring of 1945 by two platoons of the "Mesnyky" battalion (commanded by "Blahyi") against a Soviet force near the village of Khmelivka, Bohorodchany Raion. ("Encounter near Khmelivka", written down by political officer "Chaika"). Two platoons, under the command of the author and "Moroz", took part in the battle. The platoons were guarding the battalion's quarters in the village of Hrabivka. They allowed the advancing enemy force to come within close range, then struck with all their strength, inflicting heavy losses in their opponents. About 50 Soviet soldiers were killed.

Two biographical sketches appear in honor of Col. Vasyl' Andrusiak ("Hrehit", "Rizun"), who was killed on February 24, 1946. Andrusiak is generally considered to be the most renowned officer of the Stanyslaviv TV. In the sketch, "Rizun-Hrehit - A heroic figure", Warrant Officer (Bunchuzhnyi) "Bohdan" speaks of Andrusiak's qualities as an insurgent officer. M.Boieslav describes his personal qualities. In "My first meeting with Rizun-Hrehit", Boieslav recounts the conversations he held with Andrusiak during a visit to the insurgents' camp. Both authors give a very favorable picture of the fallen commander.

Political officer "Chaika" writes a biographical sketch of UPA platoon leader "Gonta", a member of the "Mesnyky" battalion commanded by "Blahyi". ("Platoon leader Gonta, D.M."). Of "Gonta's" real name, only the initials, D.M., are known. His place of origin is also unknown. His father was an electrician. During the time of the German occupation, "Gonta" was studying the same trade in a technical school. He was arrested by the Gestapo for his activity in the OUN, but was released because of a lack of evidence. IN November, 1943, he joined V. Andrusiak's UPA detachments, and acquired a reputation as a good machine-gunner. He served as courier with the detachment's command staff and was a squad leader. He was wounded' after his recovery, he became platoon leader in the "Mesnyly" battalion. During the winter of 1946-47, the battalion was divided and stayed in underground bunkers. On January 7, 1947, an MVD unit discovered then, when the situation became hopeless, they took their own lives.

Staff Sgt. "Kyr" writes a biographical sketch of another UPA platoon leader, Mykhailo Zavhordyi ("Ihor"). "Ihor" was born in the village of Perevozy, Zhovtvevui Raion. During the summer of 1943, he joined the E, Konovalets' battalion (code names "Chorni Chorty"), which was under the command of 1st Lt. "Lypei". "Ihor" completed his training as a non-commissioned officer and participated in various battles with the Germans. During the winter of 1943-44, he fell ill and returned home for treatment. after the arrival of the Soviets, he organized an UPA platoon, which became known for the numerous surprise attacks it carries out against the enemy in the Zhovtevyi and Halyts'kyi raions. The sketch gives descriptions of some of the exploits of the platoon, which was a special, independent unit allied with the battalion "Dzconyz". "Ihor's" death was tragic. In the evening of April 13, 1947, he began a single-handed battle with a unit of the MVD. He was seriously wounded, captured and died under torture during interrogation.

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"CORNYI LIS", No.2, AUGUST, 1947.

This issue contains ten personal accounts by UPA officers, an introductory article and two poems by Marko Boileslav, two documents and two humorous sketches. Most of the personal accounts are descriptions of skirmishes, only three give details of day-to-day activities. The introductory article honors those who fell in battle. One of the documents give a list of 37 dead; the other names 28 UPA soldiers singled out for decoration.

"B.Podoliak", later company commander, gives a details account of a defensive battle against the Germans on Lopata Mountain, in the Skole district of L'viv province. ("Skirmish on Lopata Mt."). On July 7, 1944, about 11 o'clock in the morning, the Germans attacked two UPA companies while they were on the march. The UPA company commanders were "Blahyi" and Vasyl' Andrusiak ("Hrehit", "Rizun");Andrusiak commanded the skirmish. "Blahyi's" company took up a defensive position, covering Andrusiak's company as it pulled on to the ridge of Lopata Mt. Then Andrusiak's company covered "Blahyi's" company as it pulled back. The German police troops, together with Hungarian units, continued until nightfall to attack the mountain from all sides, but were repelled. In his description of the encounter, the author notes the roles of individual detachments, describes their armaments and gives other details.

Physician "Berest" writes an account of the incursion carried out by the "Pidkarpatskyi" battalion from the Stanyslaviv region, commanded by Lt. "Prut", into the Lemko , in July-December, 1945. ("Impressions of the Lemko region"). The account includes descriptions of the battalion's day-to-day life, as well as the author's impression of the state of affairs in the Lemko region. A fierce struggle was raging at the time between the UPA and the Polish communist army, which was trying to drive the Lemkos from their lands into the USSR.

Political officer "Yaryi" describes in detail a defensive engagement waged by the "Pidkarpatskyi" battalion on August 16, 1945m near the villages of Prybyshiv in the Lemko region. ("One of the UPA's engagements in the Zakerzon region"). During the night, one platoon of the batalion destroyed the Soviet garrison at the Komancha station on the Czechoslovakian border. The following day, an MVD unit and Polish army (WP) force of about 300 attacked the battalion's outpost near the village of Prybyshiv. The battalion took up its defense in hills near the village, repelled the enemy's attacks and forced him to retreat. One Polish unit, which had broken into the village, was surrounded and destroyed as it made its retreat. Battalion commander Lt. "Prut" commanded the fight.

Lt. "Sokil", commander of the 1s company of the "Pidkarpatskyi" battalion, briefly describes the battalion's night attack, on October 18, 1945, against a Polish garrison in the town of Bircha. ("Attack of the "Pidkarpatskyi" battalion on the town of Bircha, Povit of Peremushl'"). The operation was directed by Lt. "Prut". "Sokil's" company was the smash the Polish army (WP) barracks and the prison; " Karmeliuk's", the police garrisons and other establishments. The task of "Pyrih's" company was to safeguard the attack and to prevent the enemy from obtaining assistance. Sustaining almost no losses, "Sokil's" company scattered the Polish battalion, burned the barracks and smashed the prison, freeing about two hundred Ukrainian prisoners. "Karmeliuk's" company was equally successful. In the morning the insurgents retreated into the forest.

Political officer "Chaika" describes how the company commanded by "Vovk" celebrated Easter in the Chornyi forest in 1946. The memoir is full of interesting details. Although the celebration came in the wake of the great blockade of the UPA's area of operation by the MVD forces, the tables were laden with eggs, cheese, butter, sausage, ham and other Easter food supplied by neighboring villages. The author recalls that the soldiers were thin and weakened after the difficult winter and that the outposts and sentries carefully guarded the camp. There were no priests or other civilians at the celebrations; only battalion commander "Chornota" and members of the underground - about 80 persons in all. The author summarizes the speeches given at the celebration and describes the morale of the troops.

Lt. Mykhailo Korzhak ("Saper"), then the assistant platoon leader of the 1st company of the "Pidkarpatskyi" battalion commanded by Vasyl' Andrusiak ("Hrehit", "Rizun"), describes an ambush on a retreating German transport, carried out under his command by a platoon of about 50 men on August 3, 1944. ("Ambush near Yasinka Masiova"). The platoon overpowered the German guard of about 150 men, took 107 prisoners and captured 60 carloads of military equipment.

The author gives a detailed account of the operation, in which he was seriously wounded.

1st Lt. "Vykhor" briefly describes a defensive engagement waged on September 20, 1944, by three UPA training companies (commanded by "Dovbush", "Iskra" and "Kryveiko") against the MVD units on Malynovyshche Mountain. ("Engagement on Maynovyshche Mt."). The Non-commissioned Officers School, under the command of 1st Lt. Chmelyk, also took part. The combat was directed by Maj. Mykola Tverdokhlib ("Hrim"), UPA commander for 300 men; the Soviets, 800, with reinforcements on the way. At first, the UPA units defended their camps from previously-dug trenches; later, they were forced into a mobile defense. They repelled the enemy's advance from 13:00 hours until nighttime, then broke through the encirclement. The UPA lost ten men; their opponents, 50.

Lt. "Pavlo", commander of the 2nd company of Lt. "Prut's" "Pidkarpatskyi" battalion (referred to here by its code name, "Skazheni"), describes the battalion's attack, on April 7, 1945, on a 170-man strong MVD garrison in the village of Posich (Chornyi forest). ("Attack in the village of Posich").The 1st company, "Zmiyi", commanded by "Sokil", and the 2nd, "Zavediyi", commanded by "Pavlo", struck at night, destroying the garrison stationed in the village school and three neighboring houses. The 3rd company, "Chorni Chorty", maintained positions around the village to prevent the enemy from obtaining assistance of an arm.

1stLt. "Dons'kyi" describes in detail an evening ambush carried out by an UPA company commanded by "Shum", on September 25, 1944, near the village of Sokil, Halych District. The aim of the ambush was to destroy the outpost of an 80-man MVD special force unit from the village of Medyn', but a much larger MVD unit fell into the trap. The company shattered the enemy forces and seized a good deal of military equipment. 173 enemy soldiers were killed.

Poet Marko Boieslav depicts the camp lifestyle of the UPA company commanded by "Shum" in and account entitled "In Shym's camp".

(September, 1944). He describes the mood in the camp. recounts the activities of the soldiers and gives portraits of several officers, including company commander "Shum".

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"CHORNYI LIS", No. 3, OCTOBER, 1947.

This issue of the journal is dedicated to the feast-day of the UPA, October 14, the same day as the religious feast of St.Mary the Protectress. In 1947, on the occasion of the fifth anniversary of UPA activity, the UHVR declared in a resolution that this traditional Ukrainian military feast, dating back to the Cossack period, should by revived. "Dunai", commander of the Stanyslaviv Military District (TV), issued an order to his troops that they celebrate this feast-day. The order explains the significance of the holiday and suggests how it should by celebrated On this occasion the editors of the journal and the "Chornolis'ki povstantsi" (Chornyi forest insurgents) printed a telegram greeting members of the UPA's high command - Maj. Mykola Tverdokhlib ("Hrim"), Col. Vasyl' Sydor ("Shelest", "Vyshytyi") and Gen. Roman Shukhevych (Taras Chuprynka") and wishing them success in the struggle for freedom. The journal also includes an anniversary poem by Marko Boieslav, "14.10.1942", and an article, "On the fifth anniversary of the UPA's struggle" (unsigned), which gives a historical overview of the UPA's struggle, notes its successes and discusses the current problem of defense against superior Soviet forces.

Memoirs make up the rest of this issue.

In an article entitled "For the New Year, 1945", company commander "B.Podoliak" gives the story, past and present, of the UPA battalion commanded by "Blahyi". The author describes the battalion's quarters in the snow, its camp fires burning among the enormous fir trees of the Chornyi forest. He gives sketches of the officers, battalion commander "Blahyi" and company commanders "Oleh" and "Shum". He presents the battalion's history as though narrated by "Blahyi". At first, we are told, it was a company. On November 26, it had its first successful fight with the German forces. Throughout the winter and spring of 1944 the company carried out numerous attacks against the Germans. After Easter it fought with Soviet partisans who were making incursions into the Chornyi forest. In June, 1944, the company carried out raids in the district of Bolekhiv, Stryi, Drohobych, Sambir and Peremushl', where it fought successfully against the Germans on Lopata Mt., in Bystrystsia, Svydnyk, Zubrytsia and Yasinka. By the time of the Soviet return, in the fall of 1944, the company had grown into a battalion. It carried out a string of skirmishes with the MVD troops. The account ends with a New Year's message delivered by "Blahyi" to his battalion.

A second account by "B. Podoliak", "Easter in the Chornyi forest, 1944", describes the Easter celebrations of the company commanded by Vasyl' Andrusiak ("Hrehit", "Rizun" ). A priest and various guests came to the forest and wagons loaded with holiday food arrived from nearby villages. The account is valuable as a record of the insurgents' lifestyle.

"Marko Boieslav" provides a sketch of Yaroslav Mel'nyk ("Robert"), who fell on October 31, 1946 ("In place of a word at a graveside of Yaroslav Mel'nyk - "Robert" ". Y. Mel'nyk was an outstanding OUN activist in the Carpathian Mountains. He began as an OUN leader of the Kalush Povit; then, of the Kolomiya Okruh, later of Stanyslaviv Oblast and finally, of the Carpathian Krai. Caught in an MVD ambush, Y. Mel'nyk ended his life with a shot from his own pistol.

Political officer "Chaika" describes the UPA ambush which took the life of MVD Colonel Gen. Moskalenko. ("For the blood of my comrades"). The general's death was accidental. On May 3, 1946, Lt. "Pavlo", commander of the UPA battalion "Mesnyky", sent ten soldiers to set up an ambush on the Stryi-Stanyslaviv road, near the Tiaziv railroad station. The group was led by platoon leader "Gonta"; the account also mentions platoon leader "Richka", squadron leader "Solovey" and rifleman "Romko". Colonel Gen. Moskalenko's limousine drove into the ambush. Everyone was killed The following day a whole Soviet division went in pursuit of the insurgents.

Warrant Officer (Bunchuzhnyi) "Ihor" describes the attack, on January 18, 1945, by a large MVD force on the UPA battalion "Smertonostsi" in the forest near the village of Boknariveka forest" ). The battalion was commanded by Capt. "Chornyi". Companies commanded by "Vykhor" and "Hroza" were quartered separately, at a distance of 500m. from each other. Although they provided mutual aid, each company carried on its defense independently. They repelled the enemy's attack for one-and -a-half hours, then broke through the encirclement bringing their wounded with them for treatment in neighboring villages. In the evening, one company had another encounter with the MVD forces, from which it emerged successful. The author does not provide a detailed description of the whole operation, but gives a picture of certain individual encounters and of the general lifestyle of the soldiers. These events occurred during the great winter blockade by the MVD units of the UPA's area of operations.

The UPA's physician "Berest" writes a personal reminiscence about Col. Vasyl' Andrusiak ("Hrehit", "Rizun"), which he entitles "We are invincible". The account is written as a conversation with a "foreigner", held many years in the future, in which the author speaks of the legendary UPA commander V. Andrusiak. "Berest" describes Andrusiak's appearance and his qualities both as a person and as an army commander, provides an outline of Andrusiak's activities and recounts his own meetings with him. The author makes no attempt to conceal the fact the he was greatly impressed with Andrusiak's personal qualities and military talents. The sketch is useful not only for biographical purposes, but also as an account of the soldierly virtues considered necessary in the face of the struggle the UPA was waging. Col. V. Andrusiak was killed on February 24, 1946.

This issue of the journal also contains posthumous notices about Col. Dmytro Kliachkivs'kyi, 1st Supreme Commander of the UPA in Volyn'; Gen. Dmytro Hrystai, Chief of the UPA Supreme General Staff; and Dmytro Mayivskyi, member of the OUN leadership. The mentions were reprinted from "Ideia i chyn", no. 10.

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"CHORNYI LIS", Vol.2, No. 1-2 (4-5), JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1948

This issue marks the religious and national holidays with poems by Marko Boieslav. There are two Christmas poems - "Hey, in Ukraine" (insurgent carol) and "Christmas Eve in the Resistant", and a poem honoring the annoversary of Ukraine's sovereignty: "21.1.1918-1919". Bioeslav also marks the battle at Kruty with a patriotic allegory, "A Voice from Kruty". It tells of a disillusioned youth wandering through fields near the site of a battle in search of the meaning of apparition - the Spirit of the Heroes - who points out to him the purpose of his life - to serve his motherland. The youth vows to devote his life to the struggle for freedom.

In addition to this topical material, the journal contains eight personal accounts and three documents. Two of the documents are UHVR resolutions concerning military decorations for UPA soldiers and civilians, and promotion of soldiers. The documents list 19 decorated (15 UPA soldiers and four civilians ) and 12 promoted. The third document names 14 soldiers fallen in the Stanyslaviv Military District (TV). The list gives each soldier's rank, pseudonym, function (position in the UPA), date of death and the code number of his UPA unit. Of the personal accounts, one is biographical sketch.

Physician "Berest" writes an informative account of the incursion by the "Pidkarpatskyi" battalion, commanded by Lt. "Prut", into Slovakia, August 23 - September 10, 1945. ("Into Slovakia"). Based on the author's journal, the account provides detailed information with regard to names, places and contents of conversation as well as descriptions of the people living in the region - Ukrainian and Slovak, their attitudes towards the UPA and the communist regime, information about UPA activities, communist propaganda and other relevant material. Five UPA companies took part in this propaganda raid. The author was attached to the battalion's headquarters, together with political officer "Kruk", of the Drohobych UPA Military District code name "Magura". The account also includes a copy of a letter from "Zorych" to Lt. "Prut", ordering him to set out on the raid, and a description of the editorial offices of "Chornyi Lis".

Physician "Foka" recounts the tragic defensive combat waged in the Chornyi forest on March 22, 1945, by part of "Mesnyky" battalion ("Shum's" company and part of "Vershmy's " company), led by battalion commander "Blahyi". ("they will not crush us..."). MVD forces of superior strength advances from two sides, from the villages of Lesivka and Sadzhava. The insurgents took up a circular defense. At first they succeeded in repelling the enemy attacks; them , their defense began to breakdown. The enemy attacks; then their defense began to breakdown. The enemy destroyed the novice platoon commanded by "Tuhar" and drove some of the units out of their positions.

The battle raged for three hours and ammunition began to run out. Battalion commander "Blahyi" gave a separate order to each unit to charge through. 75 insurgents were killed, among them company commander "Shum" and battalion commander "Blahyi". Some parts of the battle are described in derail; others, in a fragmentary manner. 180 enemy soldiers were killed. Soviet aircraft also took part in the combat. Because of a misunderstanding, fore was exchanged between units of the MVD.

Political officer "Chaika" describes a night attack carried out in the fall of 1944 in the main Raion town of Tys'menyteia by "Shum's" company. ("On Tys'menytsia"). The account begins with a description of the company's quarters in the village of Bilshanytsia, and of the meeting held by the officers to discuss the plan of attack. The aim of the operation was to destroy the MVS garrison, the prison, the military office and other Raion establishments. The author describes his own assignment - maintaining a security outpost, with two squads, on the road from Tys'menytsia to Stanyslaviv - as well as his observation of the battle that took place in the town. It lasted for approximately two hours. We are told that there were explosions and fires, but are not given the outcome of the battle.

Lt. "Pavlo", who later became a battalion commander, recalls how he came to join the UPA company under the command of Vasyl' Andrusiak ("Herhit","Rizun"). ("In resistance"). In the spring of 1944 a group of 35 volunteers from the Stanyslaviv Povit gathered in the village of Rybne. Since there were German troops in the area, the meeting was held in secret and all traveling was done by night. The men made their way to the Chornyi forest. They met Andrusiak's company in the village of Zaviy. Of the volunteers, Andrusiak accepted only the young; the older men were sent home. The account contains interesting descriptions of the general conditions in the area and of the state of mind of the population, the volunteers and the insurgents, as well as character sketches of members of the underground and UPA officers V. Andrusiak, "Khmara" and "Yastrub".

"Hrushko" describes the quarters in the Chornyi forest of UPA battalion "Dzvony", then gives an account of that battalion's night attack, at the end of August, 1945, on a 150-man-strong MVD garrison in the village of Yavorivka. ("Attack on the Village on Yavorivka").The author begins with scenes from the day-to-day life of the insurgents and character sketched of several soldiers and officers, then presents the plan of attack. "Vovk's" company caught the MVD force in assembly and struck with all its strength. Panic ensued: the MVD soldiers scattered, leaving behind wounded, 30 dead and a good supply of weapons. Prisoners held by the MVD were released. "Yavir's" company also participated in the skirmish. V. Andrusiak, commander of the UPA's Stanyslaviv Military District (TV), was with the battalion at the time. One UPA soldier was wounded.

Capt. "Chornyi", commander of the battalion "Smertonostrsi", describes the defensive combat waged by two of his companies ("Zalilzni", commanded by "Bohun", and "Zviri", commanded by "Hroza") and "Siri" (a company from the battalion "Dzvony"), commanded by Mykhailo Korzhak ("Saper"), on August 28, 1945, in the Kinchats'kyi forest, Koropets'kyi Raion, Ternopil Oblast. ("Skirmish in the Kinchats;kyi forest, 27.8.1945"). In addition of the arrival of about 600 MVD soldiers from Ternopil', the insurgents took up a wide circular defensive position. The battle began at 15:00 hours on "Siri" company's part of the front. The MVD forces succeeded in cutting off part of "Siri" company from the rest of the battalion and forcing it to pull back.

The strongest attack was directed against "Zalizni" company which repelled ten enemy attacks in a period of two hours. When the defensive circle shrunk, bringing the two sides in face to face combat, battalion commander "Chornyi" ordered his men of charge through the encirclement. The charge was successful. 80 Soviet soldiers were killed; the insurgents had no losses.

In a biographical sketch that serves as a prime example of a patriotic rhetoric, Marko Boieslav writes about Lt. Col. Mykhailo Medvid' ("Kremianets'kyi", "Karpovych"),a member of the UPA Supreme Military Staff (HVSh), who was killed on June8, 1945. ("Lt. Col. Mukhailo Medvid' - Kremianets'kyi-Karpovych"). M. Medvid' came from the town of Tys'menytsia and studied in the business school in Stanyslaviv. From 1933 he was a member of the OUN, for which he twice served sentences in Polish jails. During the first Soviet occupation he was out of the country. From the time of the founding of the UPA in Volyn', he served as director of the Central Technical Liaison in the UPA Supreme Command (HK) in Volyn'; then, from 1944, he was a member of the UPA Supreme Command and co-editor of the journal "Povstanets".

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"CHORNYI LIS", Vol.2, No. 3-4 (6-7), MARCH-APRIL, 1948

This issue marked the anniversary of the poet T.Shevchenko (Poem by Marko Boieslav, "To the Great Kobzar") and the 30th anniversary of the raiding of Ukrainian flags on ships of the Black sea fleet in 1918 (introductory article by Marko Boieslav, "28.IV.1918-28.IV.1948").Most of the issue is taken up with seven personal accounts by UPA soldiers. In addition, there are two biographies, another poem by Marko Boileslav ("Song about Prut's battalion raid across the border") and a document that lists fallen members of the underground from the Stanyslaviv Okruh. 30 persons are named and we are given their pseudonyms, positions in the underground and places and dates of death.

Company commander "B. Podoliak" describes an oath-taking ceremony conducted by UPA units at the end of July, 1944, in the forest near the village of Svydnyk, Drohobych Oblast. The ceremony was attended by "Dzvinchuk", commander of the Drohobych military Region (Viiskova Pkruha - VO), Gen. D.Hrytsai ("Perebynis"), Chief of the UPA Supreme Military Staff (HVSh)' members of the UHVR, priests and "other representatives". The oath-taking was administered by Gen. Hrytsai.

In an account entitled "Feast of the Heroes in the Chornyi forest", "Baidenko", director of the underground administration for Stanyslaviv Raion, writes about his work and describes a visit he made in the spring of 1946 to "Slavobor" (Probably Marko Bioeslav) and the UPA camp in the Chornyi forest. The camp housed about 70 soldiers and officers (probably the battalion "Dzvony"), among them Capt. "Chornota", Lts. M, Korzhak ("Saper"), "Pavlo" and "Yavir" and Warrant Officer 'Bohdan'. The account includes interesting remarks about conditions in the forest after the MVD forces' winter blockade of the UPA's area of operations , and gives character sketches. It ends with a description of the celebration of the Feast of the Heroes, on May 23, 1946.

"Three portraits", by "A.Shved" (probably another pseudonym of physician "Berest"), is a short story that combines realistic descriptions with hallucinatory visions experienced by the author while being sick and in a state of delirium. The story is written "in memory of February 24,1946", the date of death of Col. Vasyl' Andrusial, commander of the Stanyslaviv Military District (TV) and "Boian", political officer for the same TV, and is dedicated to these two officers and to battalion commander "Prut". We are shown the sufferings endured by UPA soldiers during the winter blockade of 1946; the men are debilitated by ceaseless battles and marches, cold and malnourishment. Emphasis is placed on the roles played in these circumstances by three officers to whom the story is dedicated.

Lt."Pavlo" of the "Pidkarpatskyi" battalion describes his battalion's winter operations of March 1945. At this time the MVD gathered a large force in an attempt to destroy the UPA battalion. (From the battles of Prut's battalion"). To avoid leaving clear tracks in the snow the battalion was forces to zig-zag between the different enemy units and often had to fight off attacks. The soldiers usually slept right on the snow, without fires, and were weak, ragged and hungry. The author describes the battalion's manoures in its journey from the village of Didushchytsi, its defensive skirmishes near the villages of Trostianets' (Stryi Raion ) and Maidan-Fabrika, and two combats on March 25, one in the morning, the other in the evening, near the village of Pryslip. During the fight, near Pryslip, 160 enemy soldiers were killed, while the insurgents lost three.

Sgt. Maj. "Shablia", commander of the 2nd company of the battalion commanded by "Dovbush", describes the battalion's attack, in the night of November 30, 1945, on the town of Deliatyn, and its defensive fight, on the following day, on Syniak Mt. ("Battle in the town of Deliatyn and at Syniak Mt."). We are first given a description of the battalion's quarters, then a detailed account of the attack on Deliatyn, the retreat, and the combat that took place on the following day. Without sustaining and losses, the insurgents smashed the MVD garrison in Deliatyn, killing 30 persons, and burned down the saw mill. As they retreated, snow began to fall, making their tracks visible to the enemy. When they passed the village of Luh, MVD troops who were quartered there attacked them. The battalion retreated onto Syniak Mt. and took up a defensive position from which it repelled the attack. The insurgents lost seven men; the enemy many mare (number not given).

Sgt. Maj. "Kyr", then commander of the 2nd platoon of the company commanded by "Chornota", writes about the raids and battles that were carried on in the Carpathian Mountains during December, 1944, by the battalion commanded by Vasyl' Andrusiak. Because MVD troops were Making incursions into the Chornyi forest, the battalion moved its operations further east, into the Raions of Bohorodchany, Otynia and Lanivtsi. The battalion was made up of companies commanded by "Khmara", "Prut" and "Chornota". The insurgents engaged in combat operations - ambushes and an attack, by "Prut's" company, on the station in the village of Vorona. The author gives a detailed account of the ambush set up by "Chornota's" company on the road to Havrylivka, neat the village of Velesnytsia., The company was armed with a grenade launcher, 20 machine guns and light infantry weapons. An MVD force of about 200 fell into the trap and the company struck with all its might. The ambushed Soviets returned fire and called for help. When planes and additional MVD units arrives, the company retreated. During the retreat, two insurgents were killed and three were wounded. Soviet losses were about 50.

"Enei", a member of the underground, writes about his visit, in October, 1944, to the camp of "Mesnyky" battalion, which was under the command of "Blahyi". ("In the camp of Blahyi's battalion"). The author was visiting his friend, "Buitur", platoon leader in the 1st company, which was commanded by "Vershnyk". "Enei" describes the soldiers' lifestyle and activities and provides character sketches. He gives details of a raid on the Lemko region from which the battalion had just returned. Later, "Buitur's" platoon carried out two successful ambushes on Soviet forces in the Bohorodchany Raion. On November 1, the Soviets began their raids on Chornyi forest. A neighboring company battles with them and its commander, "Gamaliya", was killed. The battalion set out on raids into other woods. The account ends as the author parts with "Buitur", who is about to move east with Col. "Shpak's" unit, composed of men from the Dnipro region.

A biographical sketch by political officer "Chaika" honors Augustine Donnini ("Mykhas"), and Italian serving with the UPA. The son of a postman who became and invalid after the First World War, Donnini was born in Rome. He studied medicine and was sent to work as a medical orderly in Ukraine, where he joined the UPA. At first he was with the "Pidkarpatskyi" battalion, under the command of "Prut", them, in 1945, with "Mesnyky" company, commanded by "Pavlo". The author speaks highly of Donnini, presenting him as an intelligent, amicable person, a good soldier and a dedicated medical orderly.

"A.Shved" writes a biographical mote about Mykhailo Khmel' ("Vsevolid"), OUN leader of the Stanyslaviv Okruh, who was killed on June 7, 1947. ("A word at the graveside of Mykhailo Khmel'-Vsevolod"). M.Khmel' came from the village of Kukul'nyky in Podillia and attended high school in Stanyslaviv, at the time of the German occupation he was the OUN youth leader for Stanyslaviv Oblast.


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