Who Has A Right To Crimea

Volodymyr G. Butkevych


[1] Izvestiia, August 29, 1991.

[2] Megapolis-Express, October 17, 1991.

[3] New Times, No. 36,1991.

[4] Rossiia, No. 38,1991.

[5] Bohdan Khmelnytsky was Hetman of the Zaporizhian Cossacks and later of all of Ukraine from 1648-1654. He had succeeded in driving the Poles completely from Ukrainian lands, only to be forced into a treaty with Russia in 1654, which Russia used as a pretext for its own occupation of Ukraine.

[6] The Zaporizhian Cossacks were the basis for Ukrainian sociopolitical, economic and religious organisation from the sixteenth to the late nineteenth centuries. The Cossacks formed as escapees from Polish serfdom, choosing a martial and religious lifestyle based at their island fortress, the Zaporizhain Sich, on the Dnipro River. Their military campaigns were famous all over Europe, and their social order was higly democratic and religious.

[7] The Hetman was the leader of the Cossacks. He was elected by the Cossack assembly and his decisions had to be approved by what was called a Chorna Rada (Black Council).

[8] Following the establishment of the Cossack state, its center moved to Chyhyryn, where the Hetman was based. The Sich then came under the leadership of the Otaman.

[9] An Ukaz was a form of imperial decree, which could be issued at any time and at the complete discretion of the Tsar or the Tsarina. It had binding legal authority and was enforceable by legal penalty.

[10] A desiatyn is approximately 2.7 acres.

[11] Arkhiv vneshnei politiki Rossii do snosheniia s Turtsiei 1744 /154-55/122.

[12] The north-eastern part of Ukraine that was the only territory under Russian jurisdiction

[13] Arkhiv Kniazia Vorontsova vol. 26. p 87.

[14] See AVPR. op cit., 1723/89/8/67-70

[15] See V.A. Ulyanytsky. Dardanelly, Bosfori Chernoe more v XVIII veke, 1883, p. 124

[16] AVPR, op cit., 1747/9

[l7] Ibid, 1747/9

[18] Guberniia were territorial-administrative divisions akin to states or provinces, with a governor as the chief administrative figure.

[19] J.V. Stalin, Sochineniia, vol. 4, p. 355.

[20] In the Name of Peace, Kyiv, 1975, p. 20.

[21] V.l. Lenin, Sobrannie Sochineniia, vol. 24, p. 248.

[22] Ibid., vol. 40, p. 47.

[23] V. Vynnychenko, Vidrodzhennia Natsii, Kyiv, 1 990, pp. 81-2.

[24] Lenin, op. cit., vol. 40, p. 47.

[25] Y. Sverdlov, Izbranie Sochineniia, Kyiv, vol. 3, p. 155.

[26] Donetskyi Proletarii, 2 December 1917.

[27] Sverdlov, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 173.

[28] Ibid.,vol.3,p. 176.

[29] Dokumenty vneshnei politiki SSSR, Moscow, 1959, vol. 1, pp. 34-5.

[30] Bor'ba za sovetskuiu vlast' v Krymu: dokumenty i materialy, Simferopil, 1957, vol. 1, p. 1 53.

[31] Dokumenty vneshnei politiki SSSR, vol. 1, p. 122.

[32] Vynnychenko, op. cit., pp. 167-8.

[33] The Universaly were a series of decrees promulgated by the Ukrainian Central Rada, which ushered in the short lived period of Ukrainian independence between 1918-21. The Fourth Universal, for example, announced the final unification of Ukraine into one, independent state.

[34] Dokumenty vneshnei politiki SSSR, vol. 1, p. 217.

[35] Lenin, op. cit., vol. 50, p. 50.

[36] Razrushenie germanskikh zakhvatchikov v 1919 godu Moscow, 1943, p. 289.

[37] Sovetsko-germanskie otnosheniia: sbornik dokumentov, Moscow, 1968, vol. 1, p. 519.

[38] Ibid., vol. 1, p. 571.

[39] See Partarkhiv Instytutu Istoni pry TsK Kompartii Ukrainy, (the archives of the Ukrainian Communist Party).

[40] See Krymskyi oblpartarkhiv. (the archives of the Crimean provlncial party organisation).

[41] See TsPA IMA pri TsK KPSS.

[42] Sverdlov, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 40.

[43] Denikin, a White Russian general, led the western Russian forces fighting Bolshevik power during the Russian Civil War of 1918-22.

[44] Dokumenty vneshnei politiki SSSR, vol. 1, pp. 44-5.

[45] Ukazy sovetskikh vlastei, Moscow, 1989, vol. 1 3, pp. 480-1 .

[46] Kommunisticheskaia partiia - vdokhnovitel' i organizator ob"edinitel'nogo dvizheniia ukrainskogo naroda za obrazovanie SSSR: sbornik dokumentov i materialov, Kyiv, 1972, p. 179.

[47] Lenin, op. cit., vol. 42, p. 74.

[48] KPSS v resoliutsiakh, i resheniiakh s"ezdov, konferentsii i plenumov TsK, Moscow, 1970, vol. 4. pp.559-60.

[49] Radians'ka Ukraina, 27 February 1954.

[50] Ibid.

[51] Ibid.

[52] Ibid.

[53] SboMik zakonov i ukazov Presidiuma Verkhovnogo Soveta SSSR, 1938-1975, Moscow, 1 975, vol. 1, pp. 1 04-5.

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About The Author

Volodymyr G. Butkevych, a Ph.D. in juridical studies, currently heads the Ukrainian Institute of International Relations' Department of International Law. He is also the Vice-President of the (former Soviet) International Law Association. His studies have focused on the protection of human rights in the USSR and in Ukraine, as well as on the chasm between Soviet legal standards and international norms. In addition, Butkevych is the Chairman of the International Human Rights Conference's Organisational Committee. The Conference is held annually in Kyiv.

About the Editor

Eugene S. Kachmarsky, an M.A. in political science specialising in eastern Europe and the former USSR, is a graduate of the University of Toronto. He is currently the editor of the English-language monthly newspaper, Ukrainian Echo.

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