[LITOPYS UPA: Chronicle of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army]

Underground Journals from Beyond the Curzon Line:1945-1947. Ed., Petro J. Potichnyj. Toronto, Litopys UPA, 1987. 608 pp., ISBN 0-920092-16-0, hard cover, illustrations.


This volume of the "Litopys UPA" contains various periodical publications of the Ukrainian underground west of the Curzon Line. More specifically these materials hail from Ukrainian ethnic territory which as a result of the Yalta agreements was allocated to the People's Republic of Poland.

This land in the nomenclature of the Ukrainian underground was known as the "Zakersons'kyi krai " with its own separate political and military organization but fully subordinated to the UPA West with its headquarters located on the territory of the Ukrainian SSR.

The Zakerzons'kyi krai was further subdivided into three Military Districts from north to south: "Danyliw", "Bastion", and "Lemko", also known as the Military Okruha UPA No. 6. Although the publications represented here come from all of these Military Districts, the majority of the titles are from the "Bastton". The "Informatyvni Visti" was published in "Danyliv", while only one publication the journal "Peremoha " is from the Peremyshl region of the "Lemko " District.

The journals differ from each other by the content and the target populations they were to serve.

The "Tyzhnevi visti" (The Weekly News), as its name clearly shows, was published every week and contained information which was gathered primarily from foreign sources, the press and the radio services. In addition to the commentaries on the Polish press, the foreign newspapers (primarily various press organs from England) were constantly being surveyed and reported upon.

A rather unusual section in this publication contained the reprints from the Polish and Ukrainian newspapers published in North America. These items almost always were quite dated and very often were incomplete when reprinted in this underground publication. One reason why they were of interest may have been that they provided ready-made surveys of the English language press on questions related to the USSR and Eastern Europe. Another reason may have been the interest shown by these emigre publications in the underground struggle being waged against the Communist regimes in Poland and the USSR particularly by the UPA. And thirdly, the Ukrainian underground leadership was vitally interested in the life of the Ukrainian emigration and its ability to serve as a true source of information on Ukraine for the Western countries.

The "Informatyvni visti" (The Information News), not unlike the " Tyzhnevi visti", specialized in ideological-political materials and in short items from the foreign press and radio. It appeared every week printed by the TL "Peremoha ".

The "Informator " (The Informer) on the other hand was a journal of larger format and had anywhere from 20 to 60 pages. The focus of the journal was the USSR and the position of the Ukrainian liberation struggle within the constellation of forces in the Soviet Union and in the world at large. It contained longer, more serious analytical articles discussing for example, such problems as the "Budget of the USSR", the population policies in Poland and the Soviet Union, the Polish terror against the Ukrainian population, as well as shorter news items from Ukraine or from abroad.

The "Lisovyk "(The Forrest Dweller) was the journal of humour and satire, clearly designed for a very wide distribution among the UPA soldiers and the population at large. Well edited and illustrated by political cartoons by "Astra ", a young Crimean Tatar (his father was the Red Army colonel while his mother was ethnically Russian), it was full of witty and quite often very biting vignettes on various aspects of international politics, Soviet and Polish life and on the conditions of life in the underground. The journal was not sparring in its criticism of the Ukrainian liberation movement and exposed its foibles in a very open, biting and humorous fashion. The publication is full of anecdotes describing life under the Communist rule. In fact, in two issues available to us there is a special section devoted to "Polish Humour" which reprinted a number of Polish anecdotes in Polish language but in Ukrainian transliteration.

The journal "Peremoha" (The Victory), of which we have only the issue 3-4 for 1946 is very clearly a regional publication. All of the articles deal with the activities of the UPA Peremyshl Battalion or its component units, its battles and other events that occurred in that particular region. The tone of the articles is highly patriotic while the style of writing is rather popular and clearly designed for the average UPA soldier.


The conditions of the underground life seldom afforded the luxury of a regular centrally located printing press. The ever-present danger of discovery, difficulties with supplies, large number of personnel required to run such a press, difficulties with the distribution of large amounts of printed materials etc. forced the underground leadership to decentralized the printing operations and to locate them in various regions. All of the printing presses operated independently although quite often all of them were engaged in the publication of the same materials, In case, therefore, when one of these publishing centres were to be discovered by the enemy and destroyed, others were able to continue functioning unimpeded

There existed great differences in the make and the quality of the printing presses which were available to the underground. Some were of standard make, either purchased or confiscated from the Germans during the war, others were constructed by the underground technicians from various parts available to them. Their size as well as the method of printing were adapted to the existing conditions in a given locality and the needs of the underground at a given period of time.

A widespread use of the type made out of wood or rubber jokingly referred to as the "Ukrainian Gutenberg" was used in those areas where regular type was not available. This method was particularly well suited for printing slogans, posters, and short leaflets and fliers. The plates for the newspaper banners, book titles, illustrations and caricatures were also made in this manner. Some of the well-known underground artists, such as the sculptors Nil Khasevych (in Volhynia) and Mykhailo Chereshniovs'kyi ("Petro") (in the Nadraion "Beskyd" of the Lemko region), were engaged in this type of work.

The other method was the widespread use of the mimeograph machine. Whenever a given underground region was in need of publications but could not obtain them in quantity from the central headquarters it simply reproduced them on the mimeographing machines. This method was almost invariably used to print all regional publications, local newspapers, radio-news (news from various radio services), and even the more important organizational materials.

In areas where not even the mimeograph was available a regular typewriter was used. This form of publishing was the most labour-intensive and it produced a very small number of copies.

Finally, the materials were quite often copied by hand, usually with the help of the carbon paper.


In addition to the printing presses there was a constant need for paper, ink and other materials. During the German occupation the underground was able to confiscate from the enemy or sometimes to purchase large quantities of paper and ink on the black market and to store them in special bunkers for future use. With the return of the Soviets and immediately after the war's end, in the lands under the Polish administration there developed severe shortages of paper, ink and other necessary materials. Also many of the underground storehouses did not survive the systematic searches and seizures by the new occupiers while still others became depleted. New ways had to be found to replenish the storehouses. One method was to try and obtain the needed materials with the help of the individuals who were employed in various Soviet and Polish establishments. The purchase of needed materials on the black market was another well-tested method. [1] When all else has failed the UPA command ordered special forays on the towns and storehouses of the enemy and removed the necessary materials by force. [2]


During the German occupation the printing presses were usually located in small villages in remote forests or in a mountainous terrain, which was usually not easily accessible to the enemy. Quite often they were housed in peasant dwellings or in specially constructed forest huts. [3]

With the end of the war this was no longer possible. The printing presses and the publications centers had to go literally underground into specially constructed bunkers. [4] A great deal of care had to go into constructing such hiding places if they were to function properly as places of life and work for the underground publishers. Quite often such an underground bunker had a number of rooms such as the sleeping quarters, the living/dining quarters, the storeroom, and a large working area where the printing press was located and the actual printing and binding was performed. [5]

The construction of such bunkers was done either by the team that later occupied it or quite often by an UPA unit normally from a distant region and totally unfamiliar with the terrain where the bunker was located. Whenever anybody who was involved in the construction of such a bunker fell into enemy hands or simply deserted, the bunker was immediately abandoned and the equipment removed to safer places. [6]


The size and the structure of the underground publishing centers (Technical Links) differed from time to time and place to place depending on the local circumstances. Usually there was a Director who managed the work of the center and was responsible for the contents of the journal, the technical outlay, deadlines and supplies, -- in a word -- of the entire establishment. He allocated this work among other responsible personnel. The radio-technician monitored foreign broadcasts and edited the radio-news. Normally he also edited the 10 day radio surveys e.g. the China question, the sessions of the United Nations, the peace conference etc. The editor-in-chief worked on the main section of the journal. He organized the contributors, decided which material from the central underground publications were to be reprinted, and edited the surveys of the Soviet and foreign press. He was also responsible for the language editing. The technical editor was concerned with the technical format of the journal, had oversight of the printing machine and was responsible for the expedition of the journal. The store-keeper controlled the storage of paper, carbon papers, plates, stencils, ink, and partially also food. The supply officer (intendant) on the other hand saw to it that food was delivered to the center, that batteries were charged, and that paper and other needed things were made available. The typist and the printing workers were responsible for various technical jobs. A number of couriers who delivered mail to and from the center completed the list of the personnel. The couriers were a specially selected group of individuals who were not a part of the general underground communication system but were exclusively attached to the publication center. This emphasis on self-sufficiency and self-management was motivated primarily by the security considerations. [7]


On the territory of the Zakerzons'kyi krai there existed several underground publication or editorial centers, involved in collation and editing of materials, or technical links or technical centers, TLs, where printing was done.


The first and the most technologically advanced publication center was organized already under the German occupation. It was located in the village of Viis'ko, in Dobromyl' district, not far from the city of Peremyshl. This center was set up in 1944 on the initiative of S. Levyts'kyi who at that time was the OUN Oblast leader. After his arrest by Gestapo it became the responsibility of "Orlan" (Vasyl' Halasa, who replaced Levyts'kyi as the Oblast leader), and was placed under the direct protection of "Taras" who became the Nadraion ("Kholodnyi Iar") leader after the administrative reorganization. [8]

During the passage of the front the center was inactive but already in the fall of 1944 it was again opened and functioning but this time in the village of Tysova which was also the location of the UPA Headquarters for the Peremyshl region. [9]

The workers in this TL were: professor from Kiev ("Professor", "Orelets", "Borysten", "Umanets'"), [10] the two Poltavians, "Cheremosh", [11] and his sister "Stepova", the printer "Lypa", [12] and the typist "Sviatoslava". [13]

At the end of WWII this TL was transferred to the bunker in the forest between the villages of Kormanychi and Dylagova (Kormanychi forest, Peremyshl region) where it functioned until its destruction by the Polish Army in the spring of 1947. [14]


The largest underground publishing operations in the "Zakerzons'kyi Krai" were located in Iaroslav district, close to the headquarters of the Krai Leader Iaroslav Starukh ("Stiah", "Iarlan"). [15] The origins of this underground publishing center are not easily discovered, [16] but from various documents it would appear, however, that the publication activities in this region commenced already in December 1944 when "Sych" on his own initiative, did obtain a typewriter and began retyping various organizational instructions, leaflets etc. from an earlier period. [17] However, in the second half of March 1945, when his terrain was made part of the Okruha "Baturyn" and administrative changes were completed, he was made a technical director of the TL, provided with several typewriters, mimeographic machines and the materials that was to be printed. Almost immediately the TL was supplied with paper, ink and stencils and began to work. The TL was composed of the TL Director "Roman", [18] the typist "Khurtovyna", the radio-technician "Karmeliuk", and "Sych". The TL was located in the villages of the Khotynets' and Hrushovychi, and according to "Sych", began to publish "The Shchodenni Radiievi Visti", the Lisovyk", and to duplicate various instructions, orders etc. The TL had the code, "Z drukarni Lisovyk". [19]

From the available documents it would appear that in okruha "Baturyn" (Military District "Bastion") there existed two TLs. [20] The TL of "Volosh" and the TL of "Roman"/"Sych" but they did not function separately all the time. Very often "Volosh's" group was involved only in the editorial work, while the "Roman/Sych"'s group was engaged in printing. [21]

In his report of 1947, "Sych" claimed (corroborated by "Khurtovyna"), that P. Vasylenko ("Volosh") was transferred to this TL only in the second half of August 1945 at which time he became the Editor-in-Chief of the "Lisovyk". [22]

At that time in addition to printing the "Lisovyk" the TL is also reprinting such materials as the "Ideia i Chyn", the "Informator", "Za Ukrains'ku Derzhavu", "Perets'", "Strilets'ki Visti" and other materials. [23]

Because of the constant pressure from the Polish authorities and the desertion of "Roman" and the radio technician "Karmeliuk", the TL, now clearly under "Sych", on 1 November, 1945 moved to village Shebyvovky in Liubachiv district [24] where it remained until 20 November 1945. During that time the TL team printed the "Lisovyk", the Declaration of the OUN Leadership, and other materials, and at that same time constructed several forest bunkers. [25] On November 5 the TL was visited by "Stal" who assigned to it the typist "Tetiana". [26]

Again under pressure from the enemy the team was forced to move on 20 November to the hamlet of Skoradka near the village of Tsytulia where the group had to separate. "Sych", his wife "Khurtovyna" (they were married on 18 September 1945) and "Shchupak, remained here until 10 December, 1945 and continued printing the "Lisovyk"m "An Open Letter to the Civilized World", in Ukrainian, Polish and French, a leaflet to the Polish Army, and other materials. The editorial part of the TL, "Volosh", and Tetiana" went to Tsytulia. [27]

A couple of days later "Sych" (accompanied by his wife "Khurtovyna") returned to the hamlet of Ihnashi near the village of Radava [28] and continued working. Shortly thereafter in a battle with the Polish troops are killed the radio-technician "Haidamaka" and the Raion Propagandist Ivan Doskoch ("Zabutyi"). [29] On March 3, 1946 the group evacuated to the forest near the village of Mivkiv where they continued to work in the camp of Dykiv'skyi Kusch, and in the "khata" (the bunker) of the late "Haidamaka", [30] and at the same time began to build their own forest hut to which they moved by the end of March. In this location the TL remained until 6 July, 1946. Only part of the group worked here, namely, "Volodar", "Sych", "Tetiana", the artist "Tychka", and the cook "Ihor". In April "Stal" ("Surmach") decided to locate in this hut also the radio-informational section under the leadership of "Anglik". [31]

On 19 May, 1946, "Stal" ("Surmach") on his way to a meeting with "Stiah" left his typist "Iryna" ("Virna") with the group and two days later was killed in the skirmish with the Polish Army. [32] With him died also P. Vasylenko ("Volosh"). [33] "Iryna" from then remained with the TL and was responsible for typing the territorial reports, orders, and news from the terrain. [34]

Here they continued to print the "Lisovyk", Will the atomic bomb save England?","Hutsul'skyi kurin'", "The Acts of the Polish and Bolshevik Terror" (on a typewriter only), "Boievyi pravyl'nyk pikhoty", as well as leaflets, instructions, orders etc. [35]

The TL had a code "Z drukarni OUN". However, after the deaths of "Surmach" and "Volosh", the publications of the TL were named in their honour. The publications of purely military nature and those in Polish had the imprint "Z drukarni UPA im. Petra Volosha-Vasylenka". All others had the code, "Z drukarni OUN im. D. Surmacha". [36]

The period after 6 July, 1946 was again quite unstable for the TL and it was forced to relocate several times. On 9 September its forest hut was destroyed by the Polish troops and "sych" and "Shchupak" moved to Syniava district under the protection of "Kalynovych", whose troops provided them with a new bunker. [37]

The rest of the group was able to join them only at the beginning of September. Also at that time the entire team was relocated in the bunker of the late "Surmach". Here they were joined by the cartoonist "Astra". At the same time the group was building still another bunker and in the beginning of December "Sych", "Shchupak", and "Sokil" moved to this location. All the others, "Volodar, "Tetiana", "Astra", and "Anglik" moved tot he quarters in the village of Horaiets'. There they continued to prepare the material for publication, dispatching it by couriers to "Sych" and his two helpers. In this location they published th e"Lisovyk", leaflets, instructions, orders, "Chuzhyntsi pro Ukrainu". "U borot'bi za voliu pid boiovymy praporamy UPA", "Zavadka Morokhivs'ka" in Ukrainian and Polish, "Pol'shcha pered vyboramy", and other materials. [38]

In this bunker they remained until 18 January, 1947, when they had to abandon it on orders of "Krym" because of the desertion of "Hora", one of the builders of the bunker. The team was again dispersed. "Krym" took "Shchupak" and "Sokil" to his own bunker while "Sych" left on January 21, 1947 for the village of Vetlyn. [39]

There is no information that this TL continued to function after January 1947. There are also reports that a separate TL was located in the bunker occupied by the Krai Leader "Stiah", in which materials of the Krai leadership and "Stiah's" materials were being published. These reports, however, have to be approached with a healthy dose of scepticism as "Stiah" was known for resisting anything that might endanger the security of the headquarters. This bunker which was located in the forest near the village of Manastyr fell on 16 September 1947 and "Stiah", and his guards all perished. [40]


In the Nadraion "Beskyd" in Lemko region the TL was located near the village of Buk. The director of the TL was "Novyi" and his deputy was "Step". The typist at this center were "Dora" (Nusia Skirka) and "Marta" (Iaroslava Fil), while the artistic consultant was Mykhailo Chereshniovskyi, a well known sculptor, from the village of Vyzhnytsia. He used wood blocks for the creation of plates, caricatures, portraits and various art work.

The Nadraion leader "Mar" (S. Golash) and "Ostap", responsible for organizational matters were the principal overseers of this publishing operation.

In addition to organizational materials, the TL printed leaflets in Polish, Ukrainian, Czech and Slovak. Occasionally it was required to produce pamphlets in other foreign languages such as the brochure in French in the spring of 1946 with which it had great difficulties. [41]


In Kholm region in 1945, [42] as in the other territories, the TL was attached to the Propaganda section. [43]

The TL existed already in 1944 during the "Iaropolk"'s tenure, and under Verbivs'kyi continued to publish the journal "Informatyvni Visti", [44] and various other materials, mostly leaflets and proclamations. The editors of the journal were Mykola Lopushans'kyi ("Slota"), a teacher by profession, but also Verbivs'kyi, "Ievhen" and later on "Pevnyi". "Tsyba" (from Uhryniv) was the technician. "Olia" (from the middle of 1946) was the typist and NN (a student) edited the radio news and handled the radio equipment. There was also a number of other helpers whose names are unknown. The TL at that time was located in Uhryniv.

Under Harasymiak's tenure the management of the TL was placed in the hands of "Pevnyi" (he also became the editor of the journal), who was in charge until his death in late June, 1947. [45]


In the Nadraion "Levada" there existed a publishing center and the TL with Ivan Shamryk [46] (Ivan Chub, "Chub") who was the Chief of Propaganda in the region and also directly responsible for publications. [47] Other members of this TL were Oleksander Dejneka ("Skovoroda") and Mykola Chujko ("Genyk", "Iaroslav"), a typist and Mykhailo Bodnaruk ("Stefko"), a radio-technician. [48] In 1945-1947 here were published "Tyzhnevyi Ohliad Politychnykh Podii" (52 issues) and the "Kholms'ko-Pidlashs'kyi Informator" (25 issues). Unfortunately not a single copy of these publications has been located thus far in the West.


The underground publications were distributed in a variety of ways. The main method of distribution was accomplished by way of special couriers who were capable of delivering these materials to places hundreds of kilometers away in a very short time. Those areas that could not be reached with a large quantity of materials usually received just a few or only a single copy of a given publication and the local Technical Link saw to it that it was multiplied with the help either of a mimeograph or a typewriter. In this manner all central underground publications eventually would reach their destination either in their original, complete form, or as a reprint either in full or in part.

In this manner the underground literature went to various territorial centers of propaganda and from there to military units and even smaller centres of distribution. The responsibility to distribute literature among the population rested with all members of the underground. Various ways were used to inform the people about the goals and tasks of the underground. In some places mass meetings were called at which the literature was read to the population. In other cases the information and the educational literature would be read to only a small group of dedicated people. In the UPA units the Political Officers (Politvykhovnyky) were responsible for political education of the soldiers.

A more conventional method of distribution such as the use of regular mail services was also utilized. In such cases the literature was being mailed from distant places quite often located in republics other than Ukraine. The pasting of posters and slogans on the walls of the cities, railroad stations, schools, shops was also widely practiced. Selected members of the political elite or the members of the intelligentsia from time to time would receive such literature by mail. In Poland such actions by the Ukrainian underground have caused a great deal of interest and publicity in the government and intellectual circles.[49]

In short the literature was being distributed quite widely although perhaps not in large quantities. One was able to find it not only on the territory of Ukraine but in the neighbouring countries as well. According to Shtendera some of the publications were found in Moscow, Leningrad, Warsaw, in the Caucasus, and even in Kazakhstan. [50]

Where possible the underground literature was sent also to foreign embassies. In fact a large number of journals printed in this volume come from the National Archives of the United States. They were transmitted to the US Embassy in Warsaw by special underground couriers, most often women.[51] One of the principal couriers with good contacts to the embassies of the United States, Great Britain, France and Belgium, was Olena Lebedovych. Eventually captured by the Polish security troops together with "Dalnych", her superior, she was sentenced to many years in jail.[52]


"For the Ukrainian underground the territory of Poland was considered a window to the west". [53] And the leadership of the underground did all it could to transmit as much information about the Ukrainian national struggle to western countries as was physically possible.

To achieve these goals of reaching the public opinion in the West and to inform the Polish people about the Ukrainian struggle for independence a number of liaison centers had to be established in central Poland. This task was entrusted primarily to women members of the OUN who were able to move around the country more freely than the men. It was largely through their efforts that a number of such centers were setup in various cities of central and western Poland. The women also succeeded in finding and recruiting a number of sympathizers among the general population who were willing to receive and to store the underground literature earmarked for further distribution.

The greatest attention was directed at the central cities such as Warsaw, Krakow, Gdynia, Gdansk, Katowice and Poznan. [54]

For security reasons there was no attempt to build a broad underground network on Polish territories. The liaison was carried on by specially selected persons who quite often acted individually and were not connected with each other. These individuals would receive the materials and proper instructions where to deliver them from their immediate superiors who in most cases were located on the Ukrainian ethnographic territories.[55]

The selection and the dispatching of the couriers was in the hands of the top political and military leadership of the underground. From time to time the lower echelons were allowed to engage in this activity as well.[56]

At the leadership level the control over the couriers to central Poland was in the hands of "Dalnych", the Chief of the SB (Security Services), and also of "Orlan", the Chief of Propaganda. On occasion, "Hryhor", the Peremyshl Okruha Leader, and the Iaroslav Okruha leaders "Stal", "Korniichuk", and "Krym" were also involved. [57]

"Dalnych" was responsible for the contracts and distribution of materials to various embassies in Warsaw, [58] although he acted very much in concert with "Stiah" and "Orlan". [59]

The literature destined for the West was usually in English or rench, but quite often also in Ukrainian, Polish, Czech and Slovak languages. Theses materials were transmitted to foreign embassies, or were given to individuals who traveled to the West including the foreign seamen who were found in Polish ports. [60] There are also indications that some underground publications, especially of a less sensitive nature were periodically sent to foreign legations via the regular mails. This was the least secure method of distribution and it is actually not known how much of such literature reached its destination. [61]

An exchange of publications with the Polish underground was also considered very important and a great deal of care was exercised in selecting only such publications for exchange that would not unduly disturb a very delicate relationship that existed between the two sides. [62] In various meetings between the representatives of the Polish and Ukrainian underground the exchange of information was always on the agenda. [63]


On behalf of the editors of Litopys UPA, I would like to thank all those who helped in the preparation of this volume for publication. First I want to thank Dr. Modest Ripeckyj, Maria Ripeckyj, "Marichka", Olena Lebedovych, Yevhen Shtendera, "Sych", "Chorna", "Iryna", "Renta", "Stefa", "Hrizna", Stepan Golash, and M. Kulyk, for the first hand information on the organization and operation of the underground printing presses and Petro Sodol and Volodymyr Makar for archival materials. I am also grateful to Volodymyr Makar for the onerous job of proofreading, Stepan Shpak for assistance in compiling the index, and everyone else who contributed in any way to the publication of this volume.

Petro J. Potichnyj

1. See: I. Chub, "Na ukrains'komu Pidliashshi v rr. 1944-1948 (II)", Do Zbroii, VII, 22 (35), March 1954, p. 32; About his work in the underground see: "Chub", 'Protokol No 1' Archiv Misii UPA, Folio #151. For example, "Renta" provides an interesting description of the various difficulties she encountered while transporting a mimeographing machine from central Poland to Iaroslav region. See: "Renta", Letter of October 16, 1987, p.2.

2. See: Ie. Prirva, 'Ukrains'ki pidpil'ni vydannia pid moskovs'ko-bol'shevyts'koiu okupatsiieiu',Do Zbroii, III, 29/15, February 1950, p. 30.

3. See: "Sych", 'Protokol No. 1, 26, IX, 47', Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio #164, pp. 4-5.

4. See: Z. Semeniv, "Kryivky i bunkry hrib chy shapka-nevydymka pidpillia", Do Zbroii, IV, 21 (34), December 1953, pp. 2-4.

5. See: Ie. Prirva, "Ukrains'ki pidpil'ni ...", pp. 30-31.

6. See: "Sych", "Protokol No. 1".

7. See: Ie. Prirva, 'Ukrains'ko pidpil'ni...', pp. 31-32.

8. See: Letter of Stepan Golash of 22 May, 1987. Also, Stepan Golash, 'Pidpil'ni drukarni OUN v Ukraini', "Voiats'ka Vatra" in "Homin Ukrainy", Nos. 2/128-7/133, 23 January - 20 October, 1980; This is confirmed by a letter from "Marichka" of June 3,, 1987 who was "Orlan's" wife and at that time was the Chief of the UPA courier service in the Peremyshl region.

9. See: "Marichka", Letter of 3 June, 1987.

10. According to S. Golash he was a professor of Kiev University who lived with his wife in a refugee camp in Peremshl. Recruited into the underground he was editing its publications. During the passage of the front he was severely wounded by a grenade which he kept in his pocket and became an invalid. He remained in the underground as an editor until his death in June 1947. Ie. Shtendera claims in his letter that he was also functioning as an Administration Chief for Okruha leader "Hryhor" (Myroslav Huk).

11. "Marichka" relates that he was killed near Tysova in late 1944. According to her he was a Soviet Pilot.

12. S. Golash claims that it was "Lypa" who was in charge of the TL while "Marichka" identifies him as he printer. Actually "Lypa" did administer the TL, was functioning as a printer and also as a radio-technician. The responsibility for ideological contents and the quality of printed materials was in the hands of "Orlan". See: S. Golash, Letter of 8 September, 1987.

13. According too S. Golash her first name was Hanna, a native of Sokal. "Marichka" states that "Sviatoslava" married "Taras" and had a baby girl. In the fall of 1947, after the forcible evacuation of Ukrainians during the "Akcja Wisla" she lived illegally in the city of Peremyshl. Discovered by the Polish security (UBP), her apartment was made into a "Coul de sac" with a goal of arresting underground couriers. Here were arrested "Khrystia" (25 November, 1947), and "Motria" (16 November, 1947). "Marta" and "Mariika" who arrived from the Ukrainian SSR for work in Poland avoided this fate only because they failed to receive the all is safe signal from "Motria" who went to establish contact. They departed to Western Poland on their own. "Sviatoslava" jumped to her death from the third story window. Her daughter was adopted by a Polish family. See: "Marichka", Letter of 3 June, 1987 and S. Golash, Letter of 8 September, 1987.

14. "Marichka" confirmed this location and claimed that the official code for the publishing center was "Kholodnyi Iar". S. Golash claims that here were published various periodicals and brochures among them: the journal "Peremoha", one copy of which is reprinted in this volume; Zenon Savchenko ("Orlan", Vasyl Halasa), "Ukrains'ko-pol's'ki vzaiemyny; "Iarlan" ("Stiah", Iaroslav Starukh), "Fashystivs'ke strashylo", "Do brativ Chekhiv i Slovakiv", and various organizational literature as well.

15. See also: S. Golash, "Pidpil'ni drukarni..."; Also: Volodymyr Makar, 'Propahandyvna diial'nist' UPAi ii dpovnennia do propahandy OUN', "Vyzvol''nyi Shliakh", No. 5, 1982, p.666. Some of the information in both articles are in contradiction with the information provided by Ie. Shtendera O. Lebedovych and "Sych".

16. Mr. Ie. Shtendera ("Zorianyi", and later "Prirva") who arrived in Lubachiv district in January 1945 from Ukrainian SSR with a task of reorganizing the underground administration, found a rather difficult situation facing him. The county administration was almost non-existent (the leading cadres were liquidated by the Soviets on January 8, 1945), except for "Volodar" who was in charge of the organizational matters, and an unidentified person responsible for the military affairs, both of the organizational matters, and an unidentified person responsible for the military affairs, both of them rather inactive. (See: Letter from Shtendera of 17 May, 1987)))). In line with his orders, he reorganized the county administration into an Nadraion and also undertook to establish a propaganda center. With this in mind he requested from "Zalizniak", (the UPA Battalion Commander, in this region), and obtained a number of individuals to help in this task. Among the persons assigned to him were Petro Vasylenko ("Volosh") as the Chief of Propaganda and an editor and "Astra", a caricaturist who was a Crimean Tatar by nationality. They were later joined by "Volodar" (according to Shtendera a university student who was 22-24 years old and hailed from Halychyna), and "Tetiana", his fiance, who was a typist (her real name was Stefa Turkevych and she came from the village of Serakistsi, near the town of Medyka). (My interview with K. Laluk ("Hrizzna") of April 1987). Shtendera was connected with this unit for approximately two months, that is during February-March 1945. In March or the beginning of April "Stal'" took over the leadership of the Nadraion Iaroslav and became directly responsible for the TL. At that time the TL was located in he village of Hariiets' in Liubachiv district. Approximately at this time Iaroslav Starukh ("Stiah") became the chief of the Ukrainian underground in Poland. His first priority was to set up a good publication center, and he immediately began to work very closely with "Stal'" and P. Vasylenko. However, because Shtendera was reassigned to Kholm region in May 1945, he was not familiar with these plans in detail. See: Ie. Shtendera, Letter of 17 May, 1987.

17. See: "Such", "Protokol No. 1, 26. IX. 47", p. 2; "Protokol No. 2", p. 2.

18. There are several questions concerning this person and the functions he was performing. According to "Khurtovyna", he was in charge of the TL until his desertion sometime in August 1945. See also: "Sych", "Protokol No. 2", p. 2.

19. "Sych", "Protokol No. 1", p. 3.

20. This question is specifically raised in Shtendera's letter to me of 17 May, 1987.

21. A third Technical Link is mentioned by O. Lebedovych, who claims that Rev. Dr. Sliusarchyk ("Roman") had his TL located near the villages of Liublyntsi, where he was helped by Ivan Machai, a university graduate. See: S. Golash, "Interview with O. Lebedovych", p. 9.

Still another Technical Link is mentioned by O. Lebedovych as being located in the hamlet of Vandzin' in Liubachiv district. The director was "Iskra" (a lawyer from Liubachiv) and he died in the bunker together with a woman radio technician a native of Eastern Ukraine. See: S. Golash, "Interview with O. Lebedovych", pp. 8-9.

22. In his letter of 17 May, 1987 Shtendera states that the "Lisovyk" was being published when he was in the territory in early 1945 and claims that "Astra", a caricaturist, was assigned to the TL for work in the journal. He seems to imply that P. Vasylenko ("Volosh") was the editor of that publication already in early 1945.

23. See: "Sych", "Protokol", p. 3.

24. According to "Khurtovyna" the TL took with it all the machines and the materials -- See: "Khurtovyna", "Protokol", p. 2.

25. "Sych", "Protokol", p. 4.

26. "Khurtovyna", "Protokol", p. 2.

27. "Sych", "Protokol", p. 4.

28. "Khurtovyna", "Protokol" p. 3.

29. "Khurtovyna", "Protokol", p. 4.

One TL allegedly existed in the hamlet of Khrapy near the village of Zaradava in Iaroslav district. The typist at this center were: "Renta" and "Irena". Here was killed Ivan Doskoch ("Zabutyi"), native of the village Lazy, Iaroslav district. (Interview with "Hrizna" of June 1987). It would appear to me, however, that this was part of the "Sych's" operation.

30. "Khurtovyna", "Protokol", p. 4.

31. See: "Sych", "Protokol", p. 5; According to "Renta", "Anglik's" real name was Pylypivs'kyi, whose brother was a pharmacist in Liashki Dovhi, Iaroslav county.

32. Dmytro Dzioba ("Stal", Surmach", "Bohun", "Khlop"), was born in 1921 in Stanyslaviv district. Joined the OUN in 1939-40. In early 1944 Oblast leader for youth affairs in Peremyshl Oblast. In the fall of 1944, leader of Iaroslav county, and after death of "Harmash" in the spring of 1945, also of Liubachiv and Tomashiv counties. After the reorganization he became Okruha leader. K-M "Pro prychyy i obstavyny smerty sl. p. Surmacha i Volosha", Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio II, No. 8, p. 5.

33. He was born in village Viitovtsi, Iahotyn raion, Poltava Oblast in the family of four children, two boys and two girls. His father was arrested in 1936 and sentenced to 10 years in the Gulag. After completing the 10-year school he entered a Pedagogical Institute but did not complete it because of the war in 1941. He joined the UPA in 194, served as the political officer and later on was transferred to the propaganda sector of the OUN. He authored many poems, short stories and essays some of which were published in the underground. Lyman, "Zhyttiepys Petra Volosha-Vasylenka", Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio II, No. 8, pp. 6-7.

34. "Sych, "Protokol", p. 5.

35. "Sych, "Protokol", p. 5.

36. "Sych, "Protokol", p. 5.

37. "Sych, "Protokol", p. 6.

38. "Sych, "Protokol", p. 6.

39. "Sych, "Protokol", p. 6.

40. See: S. Golash "Partial manuscript", p. 12. "Stiah's" bunker had two rooms. Here lived 4-6 persons -- "Stiah", his typist "Ihor", and 2-3 security personnel. "Stiah" was a prolific writer while "Ihor's" task was to type his manuscripts, to prepare them for publication and to dispatch these to a TL for printing. See: My interview of October 30, 1987, with Teofila Iryna Fedoriv ("Iryna Moroz", "Marta", and "Marusia").

41. See: S. Golash, "Pidpil'ni drukarni..." and his letter of 22 May, 1987.

42. Until April 1945 there existed a separate underground Kholm Oblast.

43. Until April 1945 there existed the Kholm underground Oblast. Sometime in March 1945 it underwent the administrative reorganization which was carried out by "Vadym" who was sent for this purpose from Volhynia. This reorganization created a Nadraion with "Sviatoslav" in charge. The Propaganda Sector still in Kholm Oblast was in the hands of "Hutsul", who had a higher education, hailed from Volhynia, to where he was reassigned after the reorganization. The Nadraion propagandist was "Iaropolk", whose real name was Koza, who had a high school education (he completed maturity examination in 1941) and was originally from Sokal region. He was killed in April 1945. He was replaced by Teodozii Verbivs'kyi ("Chmelyk"), who was born in Uhryniv, Sokal county and had a theological education. Teodor Harasymiak ("Dunais'kyi") took over from "Chmelyk" in the winter of 1945/46. He hailed from the village of Vareshyna, Hrubeshiv county, had a higher education, was a teacher by profession and did not belong to the OUN. He also represented the Ukrainian side in contacts with the Polish underground organization "WIN".

In May 1945 the Kholm Nadraion was reorganized into an Okruha composed of two Nadraions. See: Ie. Shtendera, Letter of 17 May, 1987, p. 4.

44. See also: Ie. Prirva, 'Ukrains'ki pidpil'ni vydannia pid moskovs'ko-bol'shevyts'koiu okupatsiieiu', Do Zbroii, III, 2 (15), February 1950, p. 21.

45. "Chmelyk", "Slota", and "Tsyba" were also killed at that time. Shtendera claims that although the TL was destroyed all of the equipment survived. See: Ie. Prirva, "Dii UPA...", p. 8.

46. Ie. Shtendera, Letter; "Chub", "Protokol No. 1", Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio #151.

47. According to I. Chub this TL in the beginning was reproducing the materials sent by the OUN leadership. Later on, however, it started publishing its own "Kholms'ko-Pidliashs'kyi Informator". In order not to antagonize the population in which there were many former KPZU (Communist Party of Western Ukraine) members of the publications of the center had imprint "Vydavnytstvo UPA 'Borot'ba' ". See: I. Chub. 'Na ukrains'komu Pidliashshi v rr. 1947-1948', Do Zbroii, VI, 21 (34), December 1953, p. 30.

48. See: "Skovoroda", "Moia ucahst' v revolutsiino-vyzvol'nii borot'bi ukrainsk'koho narodu v rr. 1948-49", Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio II, No. 3; See also: "Iaroslav", "Protokol No. 1", Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio #152; "Stefko", "Protokol No. 1", Arkhiv Misii UPA, Folio #153-154. "Chorna" was a typist for the territorial leadership and also for a TL.

49. See: I. Chub, "Na ukrains'komu Pidliashshi, II", Do zbroii, VII, No. 22 (35), March 1954, pp. 31-32.

50. See: Ie. Prirva, "Ukrains'ki pidpil'ni vydannia...", p. 34.

51. Discovered by me in the National Archives in Washington D.C. they were declassified in August 1982. Some of the women couriers were: Ivanka Knobloch ("Pidhirianka"), who committed suicide in jail; Maria Tkach; Luba Dacio, Evhenia Skab ("Fes'ka"); "Renta"; Maria Ripeckyj ("Oksana"); "Irena Moroz", "Ksenia"; "Stera"; Eva Bzdel; Zena Khymka ("Zoia"), born in 1926 in L'viv, who was the courier for "Orlan" and had contacts with the British Embassy. She lived in Warsaw and pretended to be a black marketeer. Arrested either in May or June 1947 she was handed over to the Soviet MGB. "Marichka", Letter of 9 May 1987; Letter of 3 June, 1987, p. 3.

52. The official charges against her which we reprint in this volume make for a fascinating reading. Mrs. O. Lebedovych now lives in the United States.

53. Letter of M. Ripeckyj from June 22, 1987.

54. For a fascinating description of how these contact centers were organized see: S. Golash, Interview with O. Lebedovych, p. 4. The center in Katowice is described in a letter of "Stefa" from September 15, 1987 and in her interview with M. Kulyk. See: M. Kulyk, Letter of October 17, 1987, ;. 5; "Stefa" and "Renta" worked together on a number of assignments. See: "Renta", Letter of 16 October, 1987, pp. 1-2. In 1946 Teofila I. Fedoriv was assigned by "Stiah" to organize a courier line through Czechoslovakia and was sent for that purpose to Wawbrzych and Jelenia Gora. But this attempt proved unsuccessful. See my interview with Teofila I. Fedoriv from October 30, 1987. "Marichka" was also active in Jelenia Gora in 1946 and was responsible for maintaining contacts with the West. There is also a mention about two contact centers, one in Warsaw which was set up by "Dalnych" and was operated by "Ikar" until its liquidation by the Polish security with the help of the traitor "Zenon" in the fall of 1946, and another one in Gdynia, operated by "Iastrub". See: p. 101 of Recenzje, uzupelnienia, sprostowania, uwagi krytyczne, polemiki, poprawki jezykowe, wniesienia nowych faktow i wydarzen oraz danych liczbowych on a book Antoni B. Szczesniak, Wieslaw Z. Szota, Droga do nikad: Dzialanosc Organizacji Ukrainskich Nacjonlistow i jej likwidacja w Polsce. Warszawa, WMON, 1973. On order of "Orlan" maria Ripeckyj ("Oksana") was a special courier to Katowice, Legnica, Krakow, Wroclaw, Olesnica, Brzeg, Szczecin, Swinoujscie, Gdansk, Ustki, Sopot, Elblag, Pasleg, Gdynia and Poznan. She also mentions "Lina" and "Roma". See: Maria Ripeckyj's letter from October 1987.

55. M. Ripeckyj, Letter, p. 3.

56. M. Ripeckyj, Letter, p. 3.

57. "Marichka, Letter of 3 June 1987; M. Ripeckyj, Letter, p. 3. Very interesting memoir about her courier service and the distribution of literature is provided by "Renta" who functioned under direct orders of "Korniichuk" ("Vyr"). See: "Renta", Letter of 16 October, 1987, pp. 1-2.

58. M. Ripeckyj, Letter, p. 3.

59. "Marichka", Letter of 4 May, 1987, p. 3.

60. M. Ripeckyj, Letter, p. 3. It is also possible that foreign intelligence services in Poland were collecting some of these materials on their own through their agents among the Polish population.

61. M. Ripeckyj, Letter; "Marichka", Letter; S. Golash, "Interview with O. Lebedovych".

62. I. Chub, "Na ukrains'komu Pidliashshi"; Ie. Shtendera in his letter claims that some pages in one issue of the journal which contained some anti-Polish sentiments had to be replaced in order to maintain good relations with the anti-Communist Polis underground.

63. A survey of these meetings can be found in Yevhen Shtendera, "In Search of Understanding: The Ukrainian and Polish Underground Movements, 1945 to 1947, Co-operation Between the UPA and the WIN", in Peter J. Potichnyj, ed., Poland and Ukraine: Past and Present. Edmonton, CIUS, 1980, pp. 271-294.


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