This volume of the "Litopys UPA" contains various periodical publications of the Ukrainian underground west of the Curzon Line. More specifically these materials hail from Ukrainian ethnic territory which as a result of the Yalta agreements was allocated to the People's Republic of Poland.
This land in the nomenclature of the Ukrainian underground was known as the "Zakersons'kyi krai " with its own separate political and military organization but fully subordinated to the UPA West with its headquarters located on the territory of the Ukrainian SSR.
The Zakerzons'kyi krai was further subdivided into three Military Districts from north to south: "Danyliw", "Bastion", and "Lemko", also known as the Military Okruha UPA No. 6. Although the publications represented here come from all of these Military Districts, the majority of the titles are from the "Bastton". The "Informatyvni Visti" was published in "Danyliv", while only one publication the journal "Peremoha " is from the Peremyshl region of the "Lemko " District.
The journals differ from each other by the content and the target populations they were to serve.
The "Tyzhnevi visti" (The Weekly News), as its name clearly shows, was published every week and contained information which was gathered primarily from foreign sources, the press and the radio services. In addition to the commentaries on the Polish press, the foreign newspapers (primarily various press organs from England) were constantly being surveyed and reported upon.
A rather unusual section in this publication contained the reprints from the Polish and Ukrainian newspapers published in North America. These items almost always were quite dated and very often were incomplete when reprinted in this underground publication. One reason why they were of interest may have been that they provided ready-made surveys of the English language press on questions related to the USSR and Eastern Europe. Another reason may have been the interest shown by these emigre publications in the underground struggle being waged against the Communist regimes in Poland and the USSR particularly by the UPA. And thirdly, the Ukrainian underground leadership was vitally interested in the life of the Ukrainian emigration and its ability to serve as a true source of information on Ukraine for the Western countries.
The "Informatyvni visti" (The Information News), not unlike the " Tyzhnevi visti", specialized in ideological-political materials and in short items from the foreign press and radio. It appeared every week printed by the TL "Peremoha ".
The "Informator " (The Informer) on the other hand was a journal of larger format and had anywhere from 20 to 60 pages. The focus of the journal was the USSR and the position of the Ukrainian liberation struggle within the constellation of forces in the Soviet Union and in the world at large. It contained longer, more serious analytical articles discussing for example, such problems as the "Budget of the USSR", the population policies in Poland and the Soviet Union, the Polish terror against the Ukrainian population, as well as shorter news items from Ukraine or from abroad.
The "Lisovyk "(The Forrest Dweller) was the journal of humour and satire, clearly designed for a very wide distribution among the UPA soldiers and the population at large. Well edited and illustrated by political cartoons by "Astra ", a young Crimean Tatar (his father was the Red Army colonel while his mother was ethnically Russian), it was full of witty and quite often very biting vignettes on various aspects of international politics, Soviet and Polish life and on the conditions of life in the underground. The journal was not sparring in its criticism of the Ukrainian liberation movement and exposed its foibles in a very open, biting and humorous fashion. The publication is full of anecdotes describing life under the Communist rule. In fact, in two issues available to us there is a special section devoted to "Polish Humour" which reprinted a number of Polish anecdotes in Polish language but in Ukrainian transliteration.
The journal "Peremoha" (The Victory), of which we have only the issue 3-4 for 1946 is very clearly a regional publication. All of the articles deal with the activities of the UPA Peremyshl Battalion or its component units, its battles and other events that occurred in that particular region. The tone of the articles is highly patriotic while the style of writing is rather popular and clearly designed for the average UPA soldier.
METHODS OF PUBLISHING
The conditions of the underground life seldom afforded the luxury of a regular centrally located printing press. The ever-present danger of discovery, difficulties with supplies, large number of personnel required to run such a press, difficulties with the distribution of large amounts of printed materials etc. forced the underground leadership to decentralized the printing operations and to locate them in various regions. All of the printing presses operated independently although quite often all of them were engaged in the publication of the same materials, In case, therefore, when one of these publishing centres were to be discovered by the enemy and destroyed, others were able to continue functioning unimpeded
There existed great differences in the make and the quality of the printing presses which were available to the underground. Some were of standard make, either purchased or confiscated from the Germans during the war, others were constructed by the underground technicians from various parts available to them. Their size as well as the method of printing were adapted to the existing conditions in a given locality and the needs of the underground at a given period of time.
A widespread use of the type made out of wood or rubber jokingly referred to as the "Ukrainian Gutenberg" was used in those areas where regular type was not available. This method was particularly well suited for printing slogans, posters, and short leaflets and fliers. The plates for the newspaper banners, book titles, illustrations and caricatures were also made in this manner. Some of the well-known underground artists, such as the sculptors Nil Khasevych (in Volhynia) and Mykhailo Chereshniovs'kyi ("Petro") (in the Nadraion "Beskyd" of the Lemko region), were engaged in this type of work.
The other method was the widespread use of the mimeograph machine. Whenever a given underground region was in need of publications but could not obtain them in quantity from the central headquarters it simply reproduced them on the mimeographing machines. This method was almost invariably used to print all regional publications, local newspapers, radio-news (news from various radio services), and even the more important organizational materials.
In areas where not even the mimeograph was available a regular typewriter was used. This form of publishing was the most labour-intensive and it produced a very small number of copies.
Finally, the materials were quite often copied by hand, usually with the help of the carbon paper.
In addition to the printing presses there was a constant need for paper, ink and other materials. During the German occupation the underground was able to confiscate from the enemy or sometimes to purchase large quantities of paper and ink on the black market and to store them in special bunkers for future use. With the return of the Soviets and immediately after the war's end, in the lands under the Polish administration there developed severe shortages of paper, ink and other necessary materials. Also many of the underground storehouses did not survive the systematic searches and seizures by the new occupiers while still others became depleted. New ways had to be found to replenish the storehouses. One method was to try and obtain the needed materials with the help of the individuals who were employed in various Soviet and Polish establishments. The purchase of needed materials on the black market was another well-tested method.  When all else has failed the UPA command ordered special forays on the towns and storehouses of the enemy and removed the necessary materials by force. 
During the German occupation the printing presses were usually located in small villages in remote forests or in a mountainous terrain, which was usually not easily accessible to the enemy. Quite often they were housed in peasant dwellings or in specially constructed forest huts. 
With the end of the war this was no longer possible. The printing presses and the publications centers had to go literally underground into specially constructed bunkers.  A great deal of care had to go into constructing such hiding places if they were to function properly as places of life and work for the underground publishers. Quite often such an underground bunker had a number of rooms such as the sleeping quarters, the living/dining quarters, the storeroom, and a large working area where the printing press was located and the actual printing and binding was performed. 
The construction of such bunkers was done either by the team that later occupied it or quite often by an UPA unit normally from a distant region and totally unfamiliar with the terrain where the bunker was located. Whenever anybody who was involved in the construction of such a bunker fell into enemy hands or simply deserted, the bunker was immediately abandoned and the equipment removed to safer places. 
THE STRUCTURE OF AN UNDERGROUND PUBLISHING CENTER
The size and the structure of the underground publishing centers (Technical Links) differed from time to time and place to place depending on the local circumstances. Usually there was a Director who managed the work of the center and was responsible for the contents of the journal, the technical outlay, deadlines and supplies, -- in a word -- of the entire establishment. He allocated this work among other responsible personnel. The radio-technician monitored foreign broadcasts and edited the radio-news. Normally he also edited the 10 day radio surveys e.g. the China question, the sessions of the United Nations, the peace conference etc. The editor-in-chief worked on the main section of the journal. He organized the contributors, decided which material from the central underground publications were to be reprinted, and edited the surveys of the Soviet and foreign press. He was also responsible for the language editing. The technical editor was concerned with the technical format of the journal, had oversight of the printing machine and was responsible for the expedition of the journal. The store-keeper controlled the storage of paper, carbon papers, plates, stencils, ink, and partially also food. The supply officer (intendant) on the other hand saw to it that food was delivered to the center, that batteries were charged, and that paper and other needed things were made available. The typist and the printing workers were responsible for various technical jobs. A number of couriers who delivered mail to and from the center completed the list of the personnel. The couriers were a specially selected group of individuals who were not a part of the general underground communication system but were exclusively attached to the publication center. This emphasis on self-sufficiency and self-management was motivated primarily by the security considerations. 
LOCATIONS OF UNDERGROUND PUBLICATION CENTERS
On the territory of the Zakerzons'kyi krai there existed several underground publication or editorial centers, involved in collation and editing of materials, or technical links or technical centers, TLs, where printing was done.
The first and the most technologically advanced publication center was organized already under the German occupation. It was located in the village of Viis'ko, in Dobromyl' district, not far from the city of Peremyshl. This center was set up in 1944 on the initiative of S. Levyts'kyi who at that time was the OUN Oblast leader. After his arrest by Gestapo it became the responsibility of "Orlan" (Vasyl' Halasa, who replaced Levyts'kyi as the Oblast leader), and was placed under the direct protection of "Taras" who became the Nadraion ("Kholodnyi Iar") leader after the administrative reorganization. 
During the passage of the front the center was inactive but already in the fall of 1944 it was again opened and functioning but this time in the village of Tysova which was also the location of the UPA Headquarters for the Peremyshl region. 
The workers in this TL were: professor from Kiev ("Professor", "Orelets", "Borysten", "Umanets'"),  the two Poltavians, "Cheremosh",  and his sister "Stepova", the printer "Lypa",  and the typist "Sviatoslava". 
At the end of WWII this TL was transferred to the bunker in the forest between the villages of Kormanychi and Dylagova (Kormanychi forest, Peremyshl region) where it functioned until its destruction by the Polish Army in the spring of 1947. 
MILITARY DISTRICT "BASTION"
The largest underground publishing operations in the "Zakerzons'kyi Krai" were located in Iaroslav district, close to the headquarters of the Krai Leader Iaroslav Starukh ("Stiah", "Iarlan").  The origins of this underground publishing center are not easily discovered,  but from various documents it would appear, however, that the publication activities in this region commenced already in December 1944 when "Sych" on his own initiative, did obtain a typewriter and began retyping various organizational instructions, leaflets etc. from an earlier period.  However, in the second half of March 1945, when his terrain was made part of the Okruha "Baturyn" and administrative changes were completed, he was made a technical director of the TL, provided with several typewriters, mimeographic machines and the materials that was to be printed. Almost immediately the TL was supplied with paper, ink and stencils and began to work. The TL was composed of the TL Director "Roman",  the typist "Khurtovyna", the radio-technician "Karmeliuk", and "Sych". The TL was located in the villages of the Khotynets' and Hrushovychi, and according to "Sych", began to publish "The Shchodenni Radiievi Visti", the Lisovyk", and to duplicate various instructions, orders etc. The TL had the code, "Z drukarni Lisovyk". 
From the available documents it would appear that in okruha "Baturyn" (Military District "Bastion") there existed two TLs.  The TL of "Volosh" and the TL of "Roman"/"Sych" but they did not function separately all the time. Very often "Volosh's" group was involved only in the editorial work, while the "Roman/Sych"'s group was engaged in printing. 
In his report of 1947, "Sych" claimed (corroborated by "Khurtovyna"), that P. Vasylenko ("Volosh") was transferred to this TL only in the second half of August 1945 at which time he became the Editor-in-Chief of the "Lisovyk". 
At that time in addition to printing the "Lisovyk" the TL is also reprinting such materials as the "Ideia i Chyn", the "Informator", "Za Ukrains'ku Derzhavu", "Perets'", "Strilets'ki Visti" and other materials. 
Because of the constant pressure from the Polish authorities and the desertion of "Roman" and the radio technician "Karmeliuk", the TL, now clearly under "Sych", on 1 November, 1945 moved to village Shebyvovky in Liubachiv district  where it remained until 20 November 1945. During that time the TL team printed the "Lisovyk", the Declaration of the OUN Leadership, and other materials, and at that same time constructed several forest bunkers.  On November 5 the TL was visited by "Stal" who assigned to it the typist "Tetiana". 
Again under pressure from the enemy the team was forced to move on 20 November to the hamlet of Skoradka near the village of Tsytulia where the group had to separate. "Sych", his wife "Khurtovyna" (they were married on 18 September 1945) and "Shchupak, remained here until 10 December, 1945 and continued printing the "Lisovyk"m "An Open Letter to the Civilized World", in Ukrainian, Polish and French, a leaflet to the Polish Army, and other materials. The editorial part of the TL, "Volosh", and Tetiana" went to Tsytulia. 
A couple of days later "Sych" (accompanied by his wife "Khurtovyna") returned to the hamlet of Ihnashi near the village of Radava  and continued working. Shortly thereafter in a battle with the Polish troops are killed the radio-technician "Haidamaka" and the Raion Propagandist Ivan Doskoch ("Zabutyi").  On March 3, 1946 the group evacuated to the forest near the village of Mivkiv where they continued to work in the camp of Dykiv'skyi Kusch, and in the "khata" (the bunker) of the late "Haidamaka",  and at the same time began to build their own forest hut to which they moved by the end of March. In this location the TL remained until 6 July, 1946. Only part of the group worked here, namely, "Volodar", "Sych", "Tetiana", the artist "Tychka", and the cook "Ihor". In April "Stal" ("Surmach") decided to locate in this hut also the radio-informational section under the leadership of "Anglik". 
On 19 May, 1946, "Stal" ("Surmach") on his way to a meeting with "Stiah" left his typist "Iryna" ("Virna") with the group and two days later was killed in the skirmish with the Polish Army.  With him died also P. Vasylenko ("Volosh").  "Iryna" from then remained with the TL and was responsible for typing the territorial reports, orders, and news from the terrain. 
Here they continued to print the "Lisovyk", Will the atomic bomb save England?","Hutsul'skyi kurin'", "The Acts of the Polish and Bolshevik Terror" (on a typewriter only), "Boievyi pravyl'nyk pikhoty", as well as leaflets, instructions, orders etc. 
The TL had a code "Z drukarni OUN". However, after the deaths of "Surmach" and "Volosh", the publications of the TL were named in their honour. The publications of purely military nature and those in Polish had the imprint "Z drukarni UPA im. Petra Volosha-Vasylenka". All others had the code, "Z drukarni OUN im. D. Surmacha". 
The period after 6 July, 1946 was again quite unstable for the TL and it was forced to relocate several times. On 9 September its forest hut was destroyed by the Polish troops and "sych" and "Shchupak" moved to Syniava district under the protection of "Kalynovych", whose troops provided them with a new bunker. 
The rest of the group was able to join them only at the beginning of September. Also at that time the entire team was relocated in the bunker of the late "Surmach". Here they were joined by the cartoonist "Astra". At the same time the group was building still another bunker and in the beginning of December "Sych", "Shchupak", and "Sokil" moved to this location. All the others, "Volodar, "Tetiana", "Astra", and "Anglik" moved tot he quarters in the village of Horaiets'. There they continued to prepare the material for publication, dispatching it by couriers to "Sych" and his two helpers. In this location they published th e"Lisovyk", leaflets, instructions, orders, "Chuzhyntsi pro Ukrainu". "U borot'bi za voliu pid boiovymy praporamy UPA", "Zavadka Morokhivs'ka" in Ukrainian and Polish, "Pol'shcha pered vyboramy", and other materials. 
In this bunker they remained until 18 January, 1947, when they had to abandon it on orders of "Krym" because of the desertion of "Hora", one of the builders of the bunker. The team was again dispersed. "Krym" took "Shchupak" and "Sokil" to his own bunker while "Sych" left on January 21, 1947 for the village of Vetlyn. 
There is no information that this TL continued to function after January 1947. There are also reports that a separate TL was located in the bunker occupied by the Krai Leader "Stiah", in which materials of the Krai leadership and "Stiah's" materials were being published. These reports, however, have to be approached with a healthy dose of scepticism as "Stiah" was known for resisting anything that might endanger the security of the headquarters. This bunker which was located in the forest near the village of Manastyr fell on 16 September 1947 and "Stiah", and his guards all perished. 
In the Nadraion "Beskyd" in Lemko region the TL was located near the village of Buk. The director of the TL was "Novyi" and his deputy was "Step". The typist at this center were "Dora" (Nusia Skirka) and "Marta" (Iaroslava Fil), while the artistic consultant was Mykhailo Chereshniovskyi, a well known sculptor, from the village of Vyzhnytsia. He used wood blocks for the creation of plates, caricatures, portraits and various art work.
The Nadraion leader "Mar" (S. Golash) and "Ostap", responsible for organizational matters were the principal overseers of this publishing operation.
In addition to organizational materials, the TL printed leaflets in Polish, Ukrainian, Czech and Slovak. Occasionally it was required to produce pamphlets in other foreign languages such as the brochure in French in the spring of 1946 with which it had great difficulties. 
MILITARY DISTRICT "DANYLIV" KHOLM REGION
In Kholm region in 1945,  as in the other territories, the TL was attached to the Propaganda section. 
The TL existed already in 1944 during the "Iaropolk"'s tenure, and under Verbivs'kyi continued to publish the journal "Informatyvni Visti",  and various other materials, mostly leaflets and proclamations. The editors of the journal were Mykola Lopushans'kyi ("Slota"), a teacher by profession, but also Verbivs'kyi, "Ievhen" and later on "Pevnyi". "Tsyba" (from Uhryniv) was the technician. "Olia" (from the middle of 1946) was the typist and NN (a student) edited the radio news and handled the radio equipment. There was also a number of other helpers whose names are unknown. The TL at that time was located in Uhryniv.
Under Harasymiak's tenure the management of the TL was placed in the hands of "Pevnyi" (he also became the editor of the journal), who was in charge until his death in late June, 1947. 
In the Nadraion "Levada" there existed a publishing center and the TL with Ivan Shamryk  (Ivan Chub, "Chub") who was the Chief of Propaganda in the region and also directly responsible for publications.  Other members of this TL were Oleksander Dejneka ("Skovoroda") and Mykola Chujko ("Genyk", "Iaroslav"), a typist and Mykhailo Bodnaruk ("Stefko"), a radio-technician.  In 1945-1947 here were published "Tyzhnevyi Ohliad Politychnykh Podii" (52 issues) and the "Kholms'ko-Pidlashs'kyi Informator" (25 issues). Unfortunately not a single copy of these publications has been located thus far in the West.
DISTRIBUTION OF LITERATURE
The underground publications were distributed in a variety of ways. The main method of distribution was accomplished by way of special couriers who were capable of delivering these materials to places hundreds of kilometers away in a very short time. Those areas that could not be reached with a large quantity of materials usually received just a few or only a single copy of a given publication and the local Technical Link saw to it that it was multiplied with the help either of a mimeograph or a typewriter. In this manner all central underground publications eventually would reach their destination either in their original, complete form, or as a reprint either in full or in part.
In this manner the underground literature went to various territorial centers of propaganda and from there to military units and even smaller centres of distribution. The responsibility to distribute literature among the population rested with all members of the underground. Various ways were used to inform the people about the goals and tasks of the underground. In some places mass meetings were called at which the literature was read to the population. In other cases the information and the educational literature would be read to only a small group of dedicated people. In the UPA units the Political Officers (Politvykhovnyky) were responsible for political education of the soldiers.
A more conventional method of distribution such as the use of regular mail services was also utilized. In such cases the literature was being mailed from distant places quite often located in republics other than Ukraine. The pasting of posters and slogans on the walls of the cities, railroad stations, schools, shops was also widely practiced. Selected members of the political elite or the members of the intelligentsia from time to time would receive such literature by mail. In Poland such actions by the Ukrainian underground have caused a great deal of interest and publicity in the government and intellectual circles.
In short the literature was being distributed quite widely although perhaps not in large quantities. One was able to find it not only on the territory of Ukraine but in the neighbouring countries as well. According to Shtendera some of the publications were found in Moscow, Leningrad, Warsaw, in the Caucasus, and even in Kazakhstan. 
Where possible the underground literature was sent also to foreign embassies. In fact a large number of journals printed in this volume come from the National Archives of the United States. They were transmitted to the US Embassy in Warsaw by special underground couriers, most often women. One of the principal couriers with good contacts to the embassies of the United States, Great Britain, France and Belgium, was Olena Lebedovych. Eventually captured by the Polish security troops together with "Dalnych", her superior, she was sentenced to many years in jail.
"For the Ukrainian underground the territory of Poland was considered a window to the west".  And the leadership of the underground did all it could to transmit as much information about the Ukrainian national struggle to western countries as was physically possible.
To achieve these goals of reaching the public opinion in the West and to inform the Polish people about the Ukrainian struggle for independence a number of liaison centers had to be established in central Poland. This task was entrusted primarily to women members of the OUN who were able to move around the country more freely than the men. It was largely through their efforts that a number of such centers were setup in various cities of central and western Poland. The women also succeeded in finding and recruiting a number of sympathizers among the general population who were willing to receive and to store the underground literature earmarked for further distribution.
The greatest attention was directed at the central cities such as Warsaw, Krakow, Gdynia, Gdansk, Katowice and Poznan. 
For security reasons there was no attempt to build a broad underground network on Polish territories. The liaison was carried on by specially selected persons who quite often acted individually and were not connected with each other. These individuals would receive the materials and proper instructions where to deliver them from their immediate superiors who in most cases were located on the Ukrainian ethnographic territories.
The selection and the dispatching of the couriers was in the hands of the top political and military leadership of the underground. From time to time the lower echelons were allowed to engage in this activity as well.
At the leadership level the control over the couriers to central Poland was in the hands of "Dalnych", the Chief of the SB (Security Services), and also of "Orlan", the Chief of Propaganda. On occasion, "Hryhor", the Peremyshl Okruha Leader, and the Iaroslav Okruha leaders "Stal", "Korniichuk", and "Krym" were also involved. 
"Dalnych" was responsible for the contracts and distribution of materials to various embassies in Warsaw,  although he acted very much in concert with "Stiah" and "Orlan". 
The literature destined for the West was usually in English or rench, but quite often also in Ukrainian, Polish, Czech and Slovak languages. Theses materials were transmitted to foreign embassies, or were given to individuals who traveled to the West including the foreign seamen who were found in Polish ports.  There are also indications that some underground publications, especially of a less sensitive nature were periodically sent to foreign legations via the regular mails. This was the least secure method of distribution and it is actually not known how much of such literature reached its destination. 
An exchange of publications with the Polish underground was also considered very important and a great deal of care was exercised in selecting only such publications for exchange that would not unduly disturb a very delicate relationship that existed between the two sides.  In various meetings between the representatives of the Polish and Ukrainian underground the exchange of information was always on the agenda. 
On behalf of the editors of Litopys UPA, I would like to thank all those who helped in the preparation of this volume for publication. First I want to thank Dr. Modest Ripeckyj, Maria Ripeckyj, "Marichka", Olena Lebedovych, Yevhen Shtendera, "Sych", "Chorna", "Iryna", "Renta", "Stefa", "Hrizna", Stepan Golash, and M. Kulyk, for the first hand information on the organization and operation of the underground printing presses and Petro Sodol and Volodymyr Makar for archival materials. I am also grateful to Volodymyr Makar for the onerous job of proofreading, Stepan Shpak for assistance in compiling the index, and everyone else who contributed in any way to the publication of this volume.
Petro J. Potichnyj
Still another Technical Link is mentioned by O. Lebedovych as being located in the hamlet of Vandzin' in Liubachiv district. The director was "Iskra" (a lawyer from Liubachiv) and he died in the bunker together with a woman radio technician a native of Eastern Ukraine. See: S. Golash, "Interview with O. Lebedovych", pp. 8-9.
One TL allegedly existed in the hamlet of Khrapy near the village of Zaradava in Iaroslav district. The typist at this center were: "Renta" and "Irena". Here was killed Ivan Doskoch ("Zabutyi"), native of the village Lazy, Iaroslav district. (Interview with "Hrizna" of June 1987). It would appear to me, however, that this was part of the "Sych's" operation.
In May 1945 the Kholm Nadraion was reorganized into an Okruha composed of two Nadraions. See: Ie. Shtendera, Letter of 17 May, 1987, p. 4.